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Fundamental Physics at ESA. J. Clavel ESA Science Directorate. Overview. Two dedicated missions in the Science Directorate LISA Pathfinder LISA Missions with aspects of FP in the Science Directorate Gaia Planck Mission concepts under assessment Fundamental Physics Explorer

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Fundamental physics at esa l.jpg

Fundamental Physics at ESA

J. Clavel

ESA

Science Directorate


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Overview

  • Two dedicated missions in the Science Directorate

    • LISA Pathfinder

    • LISA

  • Missions with aspects of FP in the Science Directorate

    • Gaia

    • Planck

  • Mission concepts under assessment

    • Fundamental Physics Explorer

  • Minor contributions to nationally led missions

    • Microscope (CNES)

  • Missions in other Directorates but supported through Science Directorate

    • ACES (led by Human Spaceflight)



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ACES mission

  • ESA mission conducted by Human Spaceflight

  • To be installed on the ISS (Columbus module)

  • Payload

    • Cs fountain clock (PHARAO)

    • Hydrogen maser (SHM)

    • Microwave link

  • Mission goals:

    • Test of a new generation of space clocks

    • Precise and accurate time and frequency transfer

    • Fundamental physics tests

  • Status: payload development

  • Launch: 2010


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Microscope

  • CNES-led mission to investigate the equivalence principle

    • Target sensitivity 10-15

    • Room-temperature experiment

  • Measurement principle:

    • compare the effect of gravity on two masses of different material

    • 2 differential accelerometers in free-fall (PtRh/PtRh and Ti/PtRh)


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Microscope

  • ESA contributes μN thrusters (FEEP)

  • ONERA: inertial sensor development

  • Development status

    • Satellite PDR February 2006

  • Launch

    • May 2010


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Planck

  • Measuring the CMB with unprecedented accuracy

    • T/T = 2 × 10-6 (about 10 times better than WMAP)

    • Angular resolution 5 arcmin (about 3 times better than WMAP)

    • Wide frequency coverage (30–857 GHz).

  • Payload

    • Low Frequency Instrument (LFI)

      • Intensity and polarization at 33 GHz, 44 GHz and 70 GHz

      • Cryogenic detectors (20 K)

    • High Frequency Instrument (HFI)

      • Bolometric measurements (intensity and polarisation) at 6 frequencies at 100 – 857 GHz

      • Detector temperature 0.1 K


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Planck

  • Fundamental physics with Planck

    • Nature of Dark Energy and Dark Matter

    • Tests of & constraints on inflation

    • Baryogenesis

    • String theory

  • Status

    • Payload flight models under test, delivery to ESA July/August 2006

  • Launch

    • Foreseen Q1 2008 (joint launch with Herschel on Ariane 5)


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Gaia – Taking a census of the galaxy

  • Astrometric mission to measure positions, distances, and space motions of stars in our galaxy

    • About a 109 stars up to magnitude 20

    • median parallax errors: 7 μas at 10 mag; 20-25 μas at 15 mag; 200–300 μas at 20 mag

    • Distance accuracy: between 1% and 10%

    • Velocity accuracy: between 0.5 km/s and 10 km/s

  • Status

    • Implementation phase

  • Launch

    • December 2011


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Gaia science objectives

  • Galaxy origin and formation;

  • Physics of stars and their evolution;

  • Galactic dynamics and distance scale;

  • Solar System census;

  • Large-scale detection of all classes of astrophysical objects including brown dwarfs, white dwarfs, and planetary systems;

  • Fundamental physics


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Fundamental Physics with Gaia

  • Determine PPN parameters

    • |1-| < 5×10-7

    • |1-|< 3×10-4

  • Solar quadrupol moment J2 to 10-7–10-8

  • Variability of the gravitational constant

    tG/G to 10-12–10-13 yr-1

  • Constraints on gravitational wave energy at frequencies between 10-12 Hzand 4×10-9 Hz

  • Constraints on M and  from quasar microlensing


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LISA PF

  • Precursor to LISA

  • Demonstrating critical technologies for LISA

    • Drag-free

    • Micro-Newton Thrusters

    • Interferometry

  • Single spacecraft in Lissajous type orbit around L1

  • Mission duration 6 months

  • Mission status:

    • Mission PDR successful in February 2006

    • Flight hardware delivery Summer 2007

    • Launch in Q4 2009


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LISA PF

  • Payload

    • Payload consists of a European contribution

      • Two gravitational reference sensors

      • Interferometric measurement system

      • Drag free control system

      • μN thruster

    • US contribution

      • Disturbance reduction system – descoped!

      • Drag free control system and μN thruster




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LISA

  • Mission to detect and observe gravitational waves and their sources

  • Joint ESA/NASA mission

    • Europe: Payload, Payload integration, propulsion module

    • NASA: Payload, Payload integration, Spacecraft, launcher, operations

    • Science operations will be conducted jointly

  • Technological challenges

    • Interferometric measurements to picometer accuracy

    • Drag-free technology

    • Low frequency stability

  • Definition/Development: 2010 after completion of LISA PF

  • Launch date ~2017 (present planning assumption)


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LISA mission concept

  • Cluster of 3 spacecraft in a heliocentric orbit

    • Spacecraft shield the test masses from external forces (solar wind, radiation pressure)

    • Allows measurement of amplitude and polarisation of GW


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LISA mission concept

  • Cluster of 3 spacecraft in a heliocentric orbit

  • Trailing the Earth by 20° (50 million kilometers)

    • Reducing the influence of the Earth-Moon system on the orbits

    • Keeping the communication requirements (relatively) standard


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LISA mission concept

  • Cluster of 3 spacecraft in a heliocentric orbit

  • Trailing the Earth by 20° (50 million kilometers)

  • Equilateral triangle with 5 million kilometers arm length

    • Results in easily measurable pathlength variations

    • Orbit is still stable enough to allow for mission duration larger than5 years


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K. Thorne (Caltech)

NASA, Beyond Einstein

LISA Science Goals

  • Determine the role of massive black holes in galaxy evolution

  • Make precision tests of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity

  • Determine the population of ultra-compact binaries in the Galaxy

  • Probe the physics of the early universe

  • Merging supermassive black holes

  • Merging intermediate-mass/seed black holes

  • Gravitational captures

  • Galactic and verification binaries

  • Cosmological backgrounds and bursts

NASA/CXC/MPE/S. Komossa et al.


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Call for CV Mission Proposals (1)

  • First of 3 Calls (TBC) for implementation of CV2015-2025

  • Available budget for a ~2016 launch: ~320 M€ (1 effective budget year)

  • The Call will nevertheless be fully open:

    • No a priori size restriction, but clear cost guidelines

    • Mission could be

      • a small/medium size S/M mission (≤320 M€ cost to ESA)

      • a large ESA alone L mission (≤650 M€ cost to ESA)

    • Selection of L mission will serve for long term technological development for mission launch in  2020

  • Up to 2 S/M (depending on size) + 1 L missions will eventually be implemented


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Schedule of Call for proposals

  • Call for mission proposals released10 June 2006

  • Letters of Intent due30 June 2006

  • Briefing to proposers at ESTEC July 2006

  • Mission proposals dueDecember 2006

  • WG select 3 S-M & 3 L missions for study phaseFebruary 2007

    All dates to be confirmed!







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S-M Missions schedule

Assessment phasesJan 2007 – Dec 2008

  • Internal assessment phase in 2007

  • Competitive industrial assessment in 2008

  • Emphasis on payload, cost and risks

    Presentation to Working Groups for prioritisationApril 2009

    SSAC recommendation for selectionApril 2009

    Selection of 2 missionsMay 2009

    Preparation & release of ITTJun-Dec 2009

    Start of industrial Definition PhaseJan 2010

    SPC approval for development phase 1 missionJun 2011

    LaunchMid-end 2016


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L Missions schedule

Study and Technology development phaseJan 2007 – Jun 2010

WG review and prioritisationSep 2010

SSAC recommendation for 1 L missionOct 2010

Start Technology consolidation PhaseApr 2011

Start Definition Phase Apr 2013

Start Implementation phase Apr 2015

L Mission Launch≥2020


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