Evaluating Impact of Exposure to Mass Media Campaign on Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria
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Evaluating Impact of Exposure to Mass Media Campaign on Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria. R. Fakolade, S.B. Adebayo, J. Anyanti & A. Ankomah Society for Family Health Abuja, Nigeria Email:- [email protected] Introduction.

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Evaluating Impact of Exposure to Mass Media Campaign on Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

R. Fakolade, S.B. Adebayo, J. Anyanti & A. Ankomah

Society for Family Health

Abuja, Nigeria

Email:- [email protected]


Introduction
Introduction Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • The first HIV/AIDS case was discovered in Nigeria in 1986

  • A Rise in incidence in succeeding years became apparent

  • Major Impact:

    • Fear and denial

    • Stigma and discrimination


Introduction 2
Introduction (2) Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • Prevention was holistic and multi-sectoral:

    • Strong political will at the 3 main levels of government: Federal, State and Local government

    • Involvement of the international community and donor agencies


Introduction 3
Introduction (3) Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • Prevention …

    • Participation of Faith based Organisations

    • Use of Mass Media

    • Community Level Intervention

    • Involvement of Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs)


Introduction 4
Introduction (4) Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

Consequences of stigma & discrimination

  • People are unlikely to test for HIV

  • Failure to disclose status

  • Fear of rejection, disapproval and denial by loved ones

  • Unwillingness to adopt preventive behaviour


Data methodology
Data & Methodology Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • Data were obtained from three waves of the National HIV/AIDS Reproductive Health Survey (NARHS) in Nigeria: 2003-2007

  • NARHS adopts a multi-stage probability cluster sampling technique


Data methodology 2
Data & Methodology (2) Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • Samples were based on a nationally representative sample of females 15-49 yrs and males 15-64 yrs

  • Sample size was nationally weighted

  • Structured questionnaires were used


Data methodology 3
Data & Methodology (3) Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • A total of 31,692 respondents were included in the analysis:

    • 10,090 in 2003,

    • 10,081 in 2005, and

    • 11,521 in 2007


Analysis
Analysis Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • Dependent variable: Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS.

  • This was obtained based on UNAIDS composite index for S & D


Analysis 2
Analysis (2) Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • Independent variables were categorised into:

    • demographic characteristics,

    • exposure to mass media messages on HIV/AIDS

    • perception about social support


Analysis 3
Analysis (3) Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • Exposure was based on frequency and intensity of both viewership and listenership to HIV/AIDS messages prior to the surveys

  • Propensity scores of: ‘No’, ‘Low’ and ‘High’; were categorized


Results
Results Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • Bivariate Analyses:

    • Increase in the level of accepting attitude towards PLWHA: 3.5% in 2003 to 9.0% in 2007 (P<0.0001)

    • Exposure to HIV mass media messages was positively associated with higher accepting attitude towards PLWHA (p<0.0001)


Results 2
Results (2) Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • Multivariate Analyses:

    • Controlling for other covariates, multiple logistic regression was employed in a systematic manner

    • A significant positive association exist between level of accepting attitudes to PLWHA and exposure to HIV/AIDS mass media messages


Results 3
Results (3) Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • Multivariate Analyses cont.

    • Those with higher levels of exposure are almost 3 times more likely to demonstrate tolerant attitudes compared with those with no exposure (OR=2.99, p<0.0001)


Results 4
Results (4) Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • Multivariate Analyses cont.

    • Those with high level of social support are about 2 times more likely to show accepting attitude compared with those without social support (OR=2.1, p<0.05)


Results 5
Results (5) Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • Multivariate Analyses cont.

    • Those exposed to the messages on all categories of mass media (radio, TV, bill-boards, etc) were 3 times more likely to demonstrate tolerant attitudes than those who were exposed to only one or two (OR=3.6, p<0.0001)


Results 6
Results (6) Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • Those exposed to road show mass media were 1.4 times more likely to show accepting attitudes than those with no exposure to this mass media strategy (OR=1.4, P<0.0001)


Results 7
Results (7) Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • Those exposed to the messages on radio were 3 times more likely to demonstrate tolerant attitudes than those who were not exposed (OR=3.6, p<0.0001)


Results 8
Results (8) Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • Those exposure to long term HIV/AIDS messages on radio and television were I.8 times more likely to demonstrate accepting attitudes than those who were not exposed (OR=1.8, P<0.0001)


Conclusions
Conclusions Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • Mass media was pivotal to programme design and implementation

  • HIV/AIDS messages was presented in an innovative manner

  • PLWHAs testimonials were a strong pull factor


Conclusions 2
Conclusions (2) Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • Use of mass media increases accepting attitudes to PLWHAs in Nigeria

  • HIV/AIDS messages on mass media complement other effective intervention strategies

  • Communities should continue to provide ocial support at community, religion,


Conclusions 21
Conclusions (2) Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

  • Communities and religion leaders should continue to provide social support to PLWHAs

  • This will encourage people’s desire for knowing ones’ HIV status and help reduce self denial



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