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E151U: Housing and Urban Development Policy PowerPoint PPT Presentation

E151U: Housing and Urban Development Policy Housing Planning What is housing planning? Housing planning is the process by which government agencies determine the intensity and geographic arrangement of housing in a community; a type of land-use planning Other Types of Land Use

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E151U: Housing and Urban Development Policy

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E151U: Housing and Urban Development Policy

Housing Planning


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What is housing planning?

Housing planning is the process by which government agencies determine the intensity and geographic arrangement of housing in a community; a type of land-use planning


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Other Types of Land Use

  • Shopping centers

  • Office and industrial employment centers

  • Transportation facilities

  • Agricultural land

  • Parks


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Current Housing Conditions in California

  • Population

    • Most populous state in the U.S. (~33.8 million, 2000)

    • Added over 4.1 million residents between 1990-2000

    • Residents moving to urban areas

  • Housing

    • Housing construction declined 1990-2000

    • Not kept pace with job and population growth

    • Affordable housing crunch

    • Skyrocketing housing prices


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Planning Challenges

  • Increased housing demand, decreased supply

  • Where to house new residents?

  • Jobs/Housing Balance

  • Local control over housing (no regional coordination)

  • Growth Control/Management on the rise

  • Not in my Backyard (NIMBY) Syndrome

  • Affordable housing


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Major Players in Housing Planning

Player #1: Legislative Branch

  • Congress (indirect role)

    • National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)—requires environmental review of all federal projects

    • Laws designed to protect endangered species and wetlands

  • California Legislature (direct)

    • created framework for local planning in California in last 80 years

      • First Subdivision Map Act in 1907

      • First General Plan law in 1927

      • California Environmental Quality Act in 1970s


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Major Players (cont.)

Player #2: Execute Branch

  • President, Governor, Federal and State Bureaucrats

    • Carry out the laws that the legislative branch makes

      Ex. Endangered Species Act, Clean Water Act can stop any local development

    • Power to carry out laws depends on

      • Amount of authority and discretion that Congress or the legislature has granted them

      • Desire of the president or governor to enforce the laws

  • California State Bureaucrats

    • Generally defer to local authorities


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Major Players (cont.)

Player #3: Judicial Branch

  • Sue, Sue, Sue!

  • 2 Categories of cases

    • Constitutional—plaintiff argues that local planning process has violated his or her constitutional right

    • Statutory—plaintiff argues that some state or federal law has been violated

      • Ex. Homeowners group argues that local zoning ordinance is not consistent with the local general plan

  • State and Federal Courts play an important role in planning


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Major Players (cont.)

Wanna-be Player #4:

Regional “Governments”

  • Council of Governments (COG), Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG), Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG), San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG)

    • No official power

    • Provides useful housing research and information

    • See http://www.scag.ca.gov/


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Major Players (cont.)

Player #5: Local Governments

  • Cities and Counties

  • 477 Cities

    • created by local citizens to serve their own purpose

    • Legislative body called City Council

  • 58 Counties

    • Creatures of the state

    • Purpose: implement state policy

    • Legislative body called Boards of Supervisors

  • Planning Commissions

    • power to make legally binding decisions

    • Local planning staff—tremendous influence over planning


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Government Housing Planning

The HUD “Consolidated Plan” and the state “Housing Element” (part of General Plan)

  • Provide opportunities for planners to identify the housing needs in their community

  • Mobilize the resources necessary to address these needs

  • Required by HUD and the state to be eligible to receive many different kinds of funding programs


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HUD’s Consolidated Plan

What is a consolidated plan?

A consolidated plan contains a 3-5 year strategic plan, an annual action plans, and annual performance reports


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Strategic Plan

  • Housing, homeless, and community and economic development needs assessment

  • Housing market analysis

  • Long-term strategies to meet priority needs


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Action Plan

  • Prioritizes projects and activities that jurisdictions will take on in the next year with HUD funds

  • Provides a basis for assessing performance


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OC Consolidated Plan

http://www.hud.gov/library/bookshelf18/plan/ca/orancoca.html


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General Plan

The general plan lays out the future of a city’s development in general terms through a series of policy statements


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Contents of General Plan

  • Land-use element

  • Circulation element

  • Conservation element

  • Open-space element

  • Noise element

  • Safety element

    AND

  • Housing element


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Housing Element

Enacted in 1969, the housing element law mandates that local governments adequately plan to meet the existing and projected housing needs of all economic segments of the community


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Housing Element Sections

  • “Needs Assessment” and inventory of resources and constraints

  • Statement of community goals, quantified objectives, and policies relative to the maintenance, preservation, improvement and development of housing

  • Program that creates a 5-year schedule of actions to implement the polices and achieve the goals and objectives


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Needs Assessment

  • Population and employment trends

  • Analysis and documentation of household characteristics, including overcrowding, and housing stock conditions

  • Inventory of land suitable for residential development

  • Analysis of potential and actual non-governmental constraints upon the maintenance, improvement, or development of housing for all income levels

  • Analysis of opportunities for energy conservation

  • Analysis of special needs (assisted housing developments, homeless, handicapped, elderly)

  • Assessment of “fair share” housing needs for low to moderate income households


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Statement of Community Goals

  • Goals relative to maintenance, improvement, and development of housing

  • Quantified objectives


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5-year Schedule

  • Identifies adequate sites which will be made available through appropriate zoning and development standards

  • Assists in the development of adequate housing to meet the needs of low and moderate income households

  • Addresses and removes governmental constraints to the maintenance, improvement, and development of housing

  • Conserves and improves the condition of the existing affordable housing stock

  • Promotes housing opportunities

  • Preserves assisted housing developments for low-income households


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