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Case 2: Lufthansa Taking Mobile Computing to the Skies. Lufthansa wants to Keep 3,500 pilots Trained on the latest technology and procedures Plugged into the corporate infrastructure Informed about schedules, weather events, and other facts that affect their jobs Control costs

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Case 2 lufthansa taking mobile computing to the skies
Case 2: LufthansaTaking Mobile Computing to the Skies

Lufthansa wants to

  • Keep 3,500 pilots

    • Trained on the latest technology and procedures

    • Plugged into the corporate infrastructure

    • Informed about schedules, weather events, and other facts that affect their jobs

  • Control costs

  • Provide Internet access to passengers


Case study questions
Case Study Questions

  • Are many of Lufthansa’s challenges identified in the case similar to those being experienced by other businesses in today’s global economy? Explain and provide some examples.

  • What other tangible and intangible benefits, beyond those identified by Lufthansa, might a mobile workforce enjoy as a result of deploying mobile technologies? Explain.

  • Lufthansa was clearly taking a big risk with their decision to deploy notebook computers to their pilots. What steps did they take to manage that risk and what others might be needed in today’s business environment? Provide some examples


Are many of Lufthansa’s challenges identifies in the case similar to those being experienced by other businesses in today’s global economy? Explain and provide some examples.

  • While the specifics of each challenge are particular to Lufthansa’s situation, many are shared by other global organizations. Examples could include:

  • Provide a mobile workforce with equipment that fits their needs while it does not get in the way of accomplishing their objectives (not only technical specifications, but also upgrades and updates, stability, etc)

  • Distribute training and other non-directly value-adding activities during non-productive periods both to maximize efficiency and reduce downtime

  • Provide adequate support to mobile operations while keeping a tight lid on cost and being able to justify the investment

  • Redefine processes to accommodate new mobile technologies and needs of a distributed workforce – including communication, meeting and decision making practices


What other tangible and intangible benefits, beyond those identified by Lufthansa, might a mobile workforce enjoy as a result of deploying mobile technologies. Explain.

Examples

  • Increased, all-around, communication, both with the organization and with personal relationships (family, friends, etc). Especially important for a highly mobile workforce such as airline pilots.

  • Remote access to corporate applications, important since increasingly more of the employee’s interaction is self-managed (payroll systems, expense reports, etc.)

  • More productive time spent at customer locations and streamlined order taking and processing

  • Ability to timely collect and report data on the competitive environment, both for the own organization and competitors (prices, volume, advertising, etc)


Lufthansa was clearly taking a big risk with their decision to deploy notebook computers to their pilots. What steps did they take to manage that risk and what others might be needed in today’s business environment? Provide some examples.

Steps taken to manage the risk:

  • Ensured that technical specifications for the equipment were acceptable to both pilots and the union, given the very special work environment they would be used in

  • Increased the chances of user buy-in by providing convenient alternatives to traditionally cumbersome tasks (such as carrying manuals and technical documents around)

  • Standardized on a unique hardware and software platform to reduce support and upgrade costs

  • Structured the process in phases, pilot and general deployment, to both assess feasibility and obtain feedback before mass implementation



Groups 1 2 3 and 4
Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • Group mini case Report & Presentation Due on February 12

    Mini case:

    Delta, Northwest Airlines, and Vancouver Airport: The business Value of Customer Self-Service Kiosks (87)


It hardware

IT Hardware and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

Left: The on-board L2 cache.

Right: The Pentium® Pro processor core with 5.5 million transistors.

Source: Intel


Learning objectives
Learning Objectives and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • Understand the history and evolution of computer hardware.

  • Outline the major technologies and uses of computer peripherals for input, output, and storage.

  • Identify and give example of the components and functions of a computer system.


Learning objectives1
Learning Objectives and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

4. Identify the computer systems and peripherals you would acquire or recommend for a business of your choice, and explain the reasons for your selections.


Microcomputer systems
Microcomputer Systems and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • Personal Computer (PC) – microcomputer for use by an individual

  • Desktop – fit on an office desk

  • Laptop – small, portable PC


Microcomputer systems1
Microcomputer Systems and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • Workstation – a powerful, networked PC for business professionals

  • Network Server – more powerful microcomputers that coordinate telecommunications and resource sharing in small networks


Information appliances
Information Appliances and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • Hand-held microcomputer devices

  • Personal digital assistants (PDA)

    • BlackBerry

  • Video-game consoles

  • Internet enabled cellular phones


Hardware your physical interface characteristics of cpus and ram
Hardware: Your Physical Interface and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them alreadyCharacteristics of CPUs and RAM


Motherboard components
Motherboard: components and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

bus , chipset, CPU, memory


Motherboard chipset
Motherboard: chipset and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • components of the chipset

    • memory controller

    • I/O controller

    • bus controller

    • cache controller

  • types of chipsets


Motherboard bus system
Motherboard: bus system and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • data bus

  • address bus

  • system/control bus

  • expansion slots

  • ISA, EISA, VESA,SCSI, PCI, AGP

  • How local bus works?PCI vs VESA

  • Bus speeds: Pentium 4 and AthlonXP


What s a bus
What’s a BUS? and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • A collection of wires through which data is transmitted from one part of a computer to another.

  • A bus connects all the internal computer components to the CPU and main memory. There's also an expansion bus that enables expansion boards to access the CPU and memory

  • Every bus has a clock speed measured in MHz


  • All buses consist of two parts -- an and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them alreadyaddress bus and a data bus. The data bus transfers actual data whereas the address bus transfers information about where the data should go.

  • The size of a bus, known as its width, is determines how much data can be transmitted at one time. For example, a 16-bit bus can transmit 16 bits of data, whereas a 32-bit bus can transmit 32 bits of data.


Semiconductor memory
Semiconductor memory and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • Microelectronic semiconductor memory chips

  • Used for primary storage

  • Advantage:

    • Small size

    • Fast

    • Shock and temperature resistance

  • Disadvantage:

    • Volatility: must have uninterrupted electric power or lose memory


Two types of semiconductor memory
Two types of semiconductor memory and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • RAM: random access memory

    • Most widely used primary storage medium

    • Volatile memory

    • Read/write memory

  • ROM: read only memory

    • Permanent storage

    • Can be read but cannot be overwritten

    • Frequently used programs burnt into chips during manufacturing

    • Called firmware


Bit and byte
Bit and Byte and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • Bit (short for binary digit)

    • Smallest element of data

    • Either zero or one

  • Byte

    • Group of eight bits which operate as a single unit

    • Represents one character or number


Representing characters in bytes
Representing characters in bytes and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already


Computers use binary system to calculate
Computers use binary system to calculate and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • Decimal

  • Octal

  • Binary

  • ASCII


Measuring storage capacities
Measuring storage capacities and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • Kilobyte (KB): one thousand bytes

  • Megabyte (MB): one million bytes

  • Gigabyte (GB): one billion bytes

  • Terabyte (TB): one trillion bytes

  • Petabyte (PB): one quadrillion bytes


Main memory
Main Memory and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • basic concepts

    • memory banks (0,1,2): 64 Meg to 1 Gig

    • SIMMs (single in-line memory modules), DIMMS (dual in-line memory modules), SDRAM (synchronous DRAM)

    • SIMMs older, DIMMS old, SDRAM newer PCs

  • additional references

    • Upgrading memory


Updating memory
Updating Memory and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • RAM is sold in the form of chips contained on small circuit boards called memory modules.

  • Most PCs have three DIMM sockets on their motherboards, and one or two of them are usually free. Adding RAM is as simple as plugging in new DIMMs


Disk drives
Disk drives and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • Hard-drives

    • Overview

    • Speed

    • Interfaces: IDE, SCSI, SATA, IDE vs SCSI

  • CD and DVD

    • basics: CD standard and DVDstandards

    • xA measurement of CD or DVD drive speed. Each x translates to either 153,600 bytes of data per second, the data rate of the CD-audio or 1,250,000 bytes per second, the data rate of the DVD-video.

  • USB flash drives

    • Overview


Magnetic disks
Magnetic Disks and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • Used for secondary storage

  • Fast access and high storage capacity

Source: Corbis.

Source: Quantum.


Types of magnetic disks
Types of magnetic disks and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • Floppy disks

    • Magnetic disk inside a plastic jacket

  • Hard disk drives

    • Magnetic disk, access arms, and read/write heads in sealed module

  • RAID (Redundant arrays of independent disks)

    • Disk arrays of interconnected hard disk drives

    • Fault tolerant with multiple copies on several disks


Optical disks
Optical Disks and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already


Uses of optical disks
Uses of optical disks and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • Image processing

    • Long term storage of historical files of images

    • Scan documents and store on optical disks

  • Publishing medium for fast access to reference materials

    • Catalogs, directories, etc.

  • Interactive multimedia applications

    • Video games, educational videos, etc.


Disk drive performance
Disk drive performance and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • Fragmentation

  • Compression.

  • Cache

  • Swap file (paging file)


Fragmentation
Fragmentation and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

Fragmentation means two things:

File fragmentation:

a condition in which individual files on a disk are not contiguous but are broken up in pieces scattered around the disk;

Data Fragmentation:

a condition in which the free space on a disk consists of little bits of free space here and there rather than only one or a few free spaces.


Compression
Compression and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • Zip

  • Winzip


Example
Example and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

In John F. Kennedy's 1961 inaugural address, he delivered this famous line:

  • "Ask not what your country can do for you -- ask what you can do for your country."

    The quote has 17 words, made up of 61 letters, 16 spaces, one dash and one period. If each letter, space or punctuation mark takes up one unit of memory, we get a total file size of 79 units. To get the file size down, we need to look for redundancies.


Ask not what your country can do for you ask what you can do for your country
" and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them alreadyAsk not what your country can do for you -- ask what you can do for your country."

  • "ask" appears two times

  • "what" appears two times

  • "your" appears two times

  • "country" appears two times

  • "can" appears two times

  • "do" appears two times

  • "for" appears two times

  • "you" appears two times our dictionary:

Our sentence now reads:


Ask not what your country can do for you ask what you can do for your country1
" and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them alreadyAsk not what your country can do for you -- ask what you can do for your country."

  • full phrase takes up 79 units.

  • Our compressed sentence (including spaces) takes up 37 units, and the dictionary (words and numbers) also takes up 37 units. This gives us a file size of 74, so we haven't reduced the file size by very much.


Others
Others and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • graphics cards:

  • monitors: resolution, size, analog vs. digital

  • printers: ink, laser, color, speed.

  • Modems: phone lines, cable and DSL

  • scanners

  • digital cameras


Hardware your physical interface connecting devices
Hardware: Your Physical Interface and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them alreadyConnecting Devices

  • Connecting devices enable your hardware to communicate with each other.

  • Busses – system and expansion.

  • Expansion – slots and cards.

  • Ports and connectors – USB, serial, parallel, and IrDA


Hardware your physical interface connecting devices1
Hardware: Your Physical Interface and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them alreadyConnecting Devices


Hardware your physical interface

Keyboard and mouse ports and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

USB port

Serial port

Parallel port

Hardware: Your Physical Interface


Hardware your physical interface connecting devices2
Hardware: Your Physical Interface and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them alreadyConnecting Devices

  • Popular connectors include:

    • USB (universal serial bus) –the most popular means of connecting devices to a computer.

    • Serial connector – usually has 9 holes but may have 25, which fit into the corresponding number of pins in the port.

    • Parallel connector – has 25 pins, which fit into the corresponding holes in the port.


Hardware your physical interface connecting devices3
Hardware: Your Physical Interface and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them alreadyConnecting Devices


Hardware your physical interface connecting devices4
Hardware: Your Physical Interface and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them alreadyConnecting Devices

  • IrDA (infrared data association) ports –are for wireless devices that work in essentially the same way as the remote control on your TV does.


Radio frequency identification
Radio Frequency Identification and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • RFID

  • Tag and identify mobile objects

    • E.g., store merchandise, postal packages, pets

  • Use RFID chips to transmit and receive radio signals

  • Chips half the size of a grain of sand

  • Passive chips:

    • do not have power source and derive power from signal in reader

  • Active chips:

    • Self-powered


Rfid versus bar codes
RFID versus bar codes and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • RFID

    • Scan from greater distance

    • Can store data

    • Allows more information to be tracked

  • Privacy concerns due to invisible nature

  • RFID Controversy


Additional readings
Additional Readings and become productive with the new hardware and applications, if they did not have them already

  • www2.una.edu/compcenter/csglossary.htmwww.beginnerspc.com


Why do you think that Aviall failed in their implementation of an airplane parts and components inventory control system? What could they have done differently?

  • Reasons why Aviall failed would include:

    • The ERP system did not support adequately Aviall’s business strategies.

    • The ERP implemented did not improve the basic operational support system needed by Aviall to provide timely supply chain management.

    • The ERP system project did not adequately address the issue of systems integration between applications.

    • The implementation of the ERP failed due to inadequate consideration of the magnitude of the project.


What Aviall could have done differently would include the following:

  • Project planning through the use of some form of a systematic development process.

  • Analysis of the business requirements prior to making decisions about the software to acquire for the ERP system.

  • Project management should have been a higher consideration of Aviall.


How has information technology brought new business success to Aviall? How did IT change Aviall’s business model?

  • How IT brought new business success for Aviall would include:

    • System integrated by using common business databases managed by databasesoftware from Sybase, Inc.

    • Designing the new combined system to properly access and deal with customized pricing charts for 17,000 customers who receive various types of discounts, and with an inventory of 380,000 different aerospace parts.

    • Developing Aviall.com to reduce the cost per order from $9 per transaction to 39 cents.

    • Customers are able to transfer their orders from an Excel spreadsheet directly to the web site.

    • Customers have access to price and availability information in less than five seconds – a real time feature.

    • Sales force spends more time developing customer relationships than processing routine orders.

    • Aviall can better match production to demand from the IT improvements.


How it changed aviall s business model would include
How IT changed Aviall’s business model would include: to Aviall? How did IT change Aviall’s business model?

  • Changed Aviall from a catalog business to full-scale logistics business.

  • Aviall became a provider of supply chain management services through the integration of a range of Web-enabled e-business software systems.


How could other companies use Aviall’s approach to the use of IT to improve their business success? Give several examples.

Some Examples:

  • Reposition a firm as a supply chain management services provider through Web-enabled e-business software systems.

  • Redesign the customer relationship management system to minimize the routine order processing and permit the sales force to focus on product and service development efforts that will grow revenue.


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