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0 Biology Today Third Edition Eli Minkoff • Pam Baker Chapter 19 Protecting the Biosphere Copyright © 2004 by Garland Science Chapter 19 Protecting the Biosphere A. Review Mature, Natural Ecosystem Stable, chemical recycling, energy flowing No pollution B. Pollution

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Biology TodayThird Edition

Eli Minkoff • Pam Baker

Chapter 19

Protecting the Biosphere

Copyright © 2004 by Garland Science


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  • Chapter 19

  • Protecting the Biosphere

  • A. Review Mature, Natural Ecosystem

    • Stable, chemical recycling, energy flowing

    • No pollution

  • B. Pollution

    • Wrong place, time, amount

    • Measurement

    • Sentinel species (canaries)

    • Toxic substances


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    • Chapter 19

    • Protecting the Biosphere

    • C. Human Activity

      • Water pollution and sources

      • Water usage, clean-up and treatment

      • Air pollution

      • Outdoor / indoor

      • Acid rain

      • CFC’s and ozone

      • CO2 and greenhouse effect

  • D. Reducing your (negative) impact on environment?

    • How can you?






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    Mature Natural Ecosystem

    • Stable population (climax community).

    • Sunlight supplies the energy.

    • Chemical are cycled (short term).

    • Energy flows through the system.


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    There is no pollution (contamination) in a mature natural ecosystem

    Pollution:

    • Anything present in the

      • wrong place**

      • wrong time

      • wrong amount

    Problem of quantities


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    Problem of quantities

    How do we measure pollution?

    • known chemical identified

      • monitor [conc] in time & space

    • sentinel species

      • organisms sensitive to pollutants

    canaries in mines


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    study the damage done to organisms by poisons (pollutants)

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    Toxicology

    • Toxic substances often affect:

      • nervous system

      • reproductive system

    e.g., DDT, dioxins


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    Pollution prevention

    Cost / Benefits


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    Human activity affects ecosystems

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    Water pollution

    Agricultural runoff

    Industrial waste

    Human sewage

    Accidental spills

    Some

    sources:


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    Bioremediation

    Using organisms (like decomposers) to help remove toxic substances from the environment

    e.g.,

    using bacteria to cleanup oil spills


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    Bioremediation of water

    human waste water

    gray water

    Methods of treatment

    natural stream/soil action

    septic tanks



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    Bioremediation of water

    human waste water

    gray water

    Methods of treatment

    natural stream/soil action

    septic tanks

    lagoons

    wastewater treatment plants


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    Wastewater treatment

    primary particulates settle out

    secondary aerobic bacteria work

    water is chlorinated and released

    tertiary remove N2


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    drinking water

    • Sources:

      • rivers/lakes

      • wells

      • treated wastewater


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    drinking water

    • Treatment:

      • holding tanks

      • flocculation

      • filtration

      • chlorination (fluorination)



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    Air pollution

    Some sources:

    outdoor

    vehicles

    factories

    fires

    indoor

    outdoor stuff

    bacteria

    chemicals

    2nd hand smoke


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    H2SO4

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    Air pollution

    Acid rain (deposition)

    SO2 (sulfur dioxide)

    Reacts to form

    sulfuric acid

    NO2HNO3

    nitric acid


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    pH

    fig. 10-9



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    Acid rain

    Automobiles and factories

    Global problem

    crosses political boundaries

    Illinois/Indiana New York

    Germany Sweden



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    The Ozone layer

    filters out harmful UV light

    damaged by CFC’s - banned



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    CO2 and global warming

    We release CO2

    Plants use CO2

    Burning fossil fuels

    releases more CO2




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    Global footprint exercise

    www.myfootprint.org


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    • Chapter 15

    • Mind and Body

    • A. Factor affecting health

      • genetics, lifestyle, diet, exposure

  • B. General (innate) Immunity

    • skin / inflammation / lymphatics

  • C. Specific Immunity

    • antigens and antibodies

    • lymphocytes

      • B-cells and antibody production

      • T-cells

    • Active and passive immunity

  • 0


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    • Chapter 15

    • Mind and Body

    • D. Immune problems

      • Autoimmunity

      • Allergies

      • Transplant rejection

      • Immunosuppression

  • E. Link to nervous and endocrine systems

    • Autonomic nervous system

    • Sympathetic and Parasympathetic

    • Stress

    • Placebo effect

  • 0


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    • Chapter 16

    • HIV and AIDS

    • A. Definitions and History

      • AIDS, Th cells, clusters

      • Koch’s postulate

  • B. Viruses

    • What are they?

    • How do they reproduce?

  • C. HIV infection

    • Stages/Symptoms

    • Tests/Treatment/Prevention

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    • Chapter 17

    • New Infectious threats

    • A. Definitions

      • infection, pathogen, epidemic, pandemic

  • B. Diseases

    • Factors affecting how diseases spread:

      • Host susceptibility/pathogen virulence

      • Herd Immunity

      • Weather

      • Route of transmission

      • Direct contact

      • Food

      • Water

  • 0


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    • Chapter 17

    • New Infectious threats

    • C. Specific problems

      • Bioterrorism: Anthrax/Small pox/?

      • STD’s: bacterial/viral

      • Antibiotic resistance

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    • Chapter 18

    • Biodiversity

    • A. Definitions

      • biodiversity, communities

  • B. Diversity

    • Value of biodiversity ?

    • Ways to preserve

    • Loss of diversity Extinction (true- or pseudo-)

  • 0


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    • Chapter 18 Biodiversity

    • C. Ecosystems (Biomes)

      • Changes in communities

        • Sucession – primary and secondary

      • Climax Community is mature, natural ecosystem

        • stable population

        • sunlight supplies energy

        • chemical are cycled

        • energy flows through system (lost as heat)

      • Destruction of ecosystems

        • examples:

        • deforestation

        • desertification

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    • Chapter 19

    • Protecting the Biosphere

    • A. Review Mature, Natural Ecosystem

      • Stable, chemical recycling, energy flowing

      • No pollution

  • B. Pollution

    • Wrong place, time, amount

    • Measurement

    • Sentinel species (canaries)

    • Toxic substances


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    • Chapter 19

    • Protecting the Biosphere

    • C. Human Activity

      • Water pollution and sources

      • Water usage, clean-up and treatment

      • Air pollution

      • Outdoor / indoor

      • Acid rain

      • CFC’s and ozone

      • CO2 and greenhouse effect

  • D. Reducing your (negative) impact on environment?

    • How can you?


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