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Bicycles and Bicycling - Introduction History evolution of bicycles Cycling as a sport and as an exercise Reference: Faria and Cavanagh. The physiology and biomechanics of cycling Muscles and movements Physiological demands Design objectives: Distribute rider’s weight appropriately

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Bicycles and Bicycling - Introduction

  • History evolution of bicycles

  • Cycling as a sport and as an exercise

    • Reference: Faria and Cavanagh. The physiology and biomechanics of cycling

    • Muscles and movements

    • Physiological demands

  • Design objectives:

    • Distribute rider’s weight appropriately

    • Ensure transfer of power from rider to machine

    • Points of contact must fit the rider:

      • handlebars

      • seat

      • pedals


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Anatomy of Diamond Frame

  • Important parts: Front triangle (tubes), rear triangle (stays), fork, lugs, bottom bracket, head tube

  • Types of bicycles: (1) Road bike (10-speed) - touring, racing, and sport; (2) mountain, or all-terrain; and (3) hybrid


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Other Frame Types; :Ladie’s Frame

Top tube is sloped considerably


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Design Features - Height

  • Height of bottom bracket (bike’s center of gravity)

    • Lower for more stability

    • Higher for more pedal clearance

  • Height measurements determine size of rider

  • Frame size - length of seat tube and top tube


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Design Features - Bike Length

  • Wheelbase length - (Fig 12.6)

    • Shorter for quicker response, longer for more stability (varies from 38 to 44 in)

  • Chainstay length

    • Shorter chainstays are used on racing bikes for more direct transfer of power


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Design Features: Frame Angles

  • Head tube - steeper for rougher ride, more efficient power transfer; shallower for handling ease and shock absorbing, but less responsive

  • Rake (amount of bend in fork blades) and trail affect steering stability. More trail equals more stability


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Design Features on Different Types of Bicycles

  • Road bicycles (10-speeds)

    • Touring, or comfort - long wheelbase, shallow angles, fair amount of trail (21 speeds)

    • Racing - short wheelbase, steep angles, little trail

      (18 gears)

    • Sport/triathlon and cross bikes - in between (100 or more miles at high speed)

  • Mountain, or all-terrain

    • Fat, knobby tires, upright, sturdy frame, suspension systems

  • Hybrid - Cross between road and mountain


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Bicycles - Frame Materials

  • Important characteristics are elasticity, stiffness, and strength (esp st/wt ratio)

  • Butted and splined tubing - thicker at ends than in the middle, with ribs inside

  • Steel - most widely used on cheaper bikes. Reliable, inexpensive, durable, predictable in handling - but is relatively heavy

  • Aluminum alloys - light, shock absorbent, comfortable. Newer alloys have improved properties of stiffness and strength (e.g., zirconium on trek bikes (trekbikes.com)

  • Titanium alloys - stiff, strong, lighter, more shock absorbent - but is expensive hard to weld and hard to machine

  • Composites - greatest strength/wt & stiffness/wt ratio - but expensive, bonding problems. Used mainly in front fork and stays. May fail catastrophically in other areas of frame.




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TrekRacingFrame






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Tubing design and Construction Methods

  • Lugs no longer used:

  • Laser mitering

  • Butted tubes – varying wall thickness

  • Splined tubes

  • Diameter and shape changes


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Suspension systems

  • Front, rear, and seat

  • Simple spring

  • Air coil/springing systems

    • Travel and stiffness may vary


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Bicycle Accessories

  • Drive Train -Crank, chainrings (front driving cogs), freewheel, derailleurs (indexed and automatic shifting are recent innovations)

  • Shoes and pedals - clipless or with clips?


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Accessories (cont’d)

  • Rims, tires, brakes

  • Saddles

  • Stems & handlebars


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Accessories (cont’d)

  • Helmets

  • Gloves, shorts


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Websites on Bicycles

  • How to select a bicycle http://www.primusweb.com/fitnesspartner/library/equipment/equip.htm

  • Manufacturer’s websites

    • Trek

    • Schwinn

    • Specialized


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Assignment for Thursday, 10/21

  • Go to one of the bicycle manufacturer’s websites (slide 23) and select a bicycle to suit your purposes

  • Read article on suspension systems and submit 2 questions for clarification or discussion


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