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ACCOUNTING THEORY: TEXT AND READINGS. RICHARD G. SCHROEDER MYRTLE CLARK JACK CATHEY. CHAPTER 1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACCOUNTING THEORY. Introduction. What is theory?. Webster defines theory as:

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Accounting theory text and readings

ACCOUNTING THEORY: TEXT AND READINGS

RICHARD G. SCHROEDER

MYRTLE CLARK

JACK CATHEY


Chapter 1

CHAPTER 1

THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACCOUNTING THEORY


Introduction
Introduction

  • What is theory?

  • Webster defines theory as:

    “Systematically organized knowledge, applicable in a relatively wide variety of circumstances, a system of assumptions, accepted principles and rules of procedure to analyze, predict or otherwise explain the nature of behavior of a specified set of phenomena.”

  • Normative theory

  • Positive theory

  • Why is the development of a general theory of accounting important?

  • What is the relationship of accounting research to accounting theory?


  • The early history of accounting
    THE EARLY HISTORY OF ACCOUNTING

    • The Zenon Papyri

    • The impact of the Renaissance

      • Fra Luca Pacioli

    • The evolution of joint ventures into ongoing businesses

    • The impact of the industrial revolution and the progressive movement

    • The concept of capital maintenance

    • The accountant as a protector of business interests


    Accounting in the united states since 1930
    ACCOUNTING IN THE UNITED STATES SINCE 1930

    • Meetings between NYSE and AIA

    • AAA

    • SEC

      • Securities Act of 1933

      • Securities Exchange Act of 1934

    • Committee on Accounting Procedure

    • Accounting Principles Board

    • Financial Accounting Standards Board


    The accounting principles board
    THE ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES BOARD

    • Formation and structure

    • Types of pronouncements

      • APB Opinions

    • The flap over accounting for the investment tax Credit

    • Rule 203

    • Criticism of the APB


    The financial accounting standards board
    THE FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD

    • The Wheat Committee

    • The Trueblood Committee

    • The FASB was established

    • The structure of the FASB is illustrated in the following diagram


    Structure of the fasb

    Financial

    Accounting

    Foundation

    Board of

    Trustees

    Electors

    Financial

    Accounting

    Standards

    Advisory

    Committee

    (approx.

    20 members)

    Financial

    Accounting

    Standards

    Board

    (7 members)

    Task Forces

    of the

    Standards

    Board

    Admin. Staff

    Research Staff

    Structure of the FASB

    Appoint and

    fund

    Govern

    Appoint

    - - - - - - -

    |

    |

    |

    Appoint and

    fund

    Appoint


    FASB

    • Mission

    • Types of pronouncements

    • Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts

    • Statements of Financial Accounting Standards

    • Interpretations

    • Technical Bulletins


    FASB

    • Emerging Issues

    • Standards Overload

    • Standard setting as a political process

    • Economic Consequences


    GAAP

    • Evolution of phrase:

      • Changed wording of auditor’s certificate brought about by meetings between NYSE and AIA

      • The APB’s definition

      • The Auditing Standards Executive Committee’s definition

    • The current sources of GAAP consist of four levels described as A, B, C, and D by Statement of Auditing Standards No 69


    Gaap hierarchy
    GAAP Hierarchy

    • LEVEL A:

    • FASB Statements

      • FASB Interpretations

      • SEC Rules and Interpretive Releases

      • Accounting Principles Board Opinions (unless amended)

      • Account Research Bulletins (unless amended)

    LEVEL B:

    FASB Technical Bulletins

    AICPA Industry Audit Guides that have been reviewed by the FASB


    Gaap hierarchy1
    GAAP Hierarchy

    LEVEL C:

    AcSEC Practice Bulletins that have been reviewed by the FASB

    Consensuses reached by the EITF

    LEVEL D:

    AICPA Accounting Interpretations (no longer issued)

    FASB Implementation Guides

    Other widely recognized or prevalent accounting practices


    The business reporting research project
    The Business Reporting Research Project

    • Steering Committee

    • Working Groups


    The role of ethics in accounting
    THE ROLE OF ETHICS IN ACCOUNTING

    • The public accountant as a watchdog



    Accounting in crisis the events of the early 2000s1
    Accounting in Crisis – The Events of the Early 2000s

    • Two major changes in the accounting profession have taken place in the wake of the accounting scandals:

      • Arthur Andersen

    • formerly one the Big 5 audit firms

    • has gone out of business

  • Sarbanes-Oxley Act

    • President Bush signed into law July 2002

    • imposes a number of corporate governance rules on publicly traded companies (Discussed in Chapter 17).


    International accounting standards
    International Accounting Standards

    • The concept of harmonization

    • The IASB

    • The IASB’s objectives:

      • To formulate and publish in the public interest accounting standards to be observed in the presentation of financial statements and to promote their worldwide acceptance and observance

      • To work generally for the improvement and harmonization of regulations, accounting standards, and procedures relating to the presentation of financial statements.

    • 41 Statements of Accounting Standards and 5 Statements of Financial Reporting Standards to date



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