The french revolution and napoleon
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The French Revolution and Napoleon. Ch 11. The French Revolution Begins. Ch. 11 Sec 1. Setting the Stage. 1700s – France considered most advanced country of Europe Center of Enlightenment Large population and prosperous foreign trade Culture admired by many.

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The french revolution and napoleon

The French Revolution and Napoleon

Ch 11


The french revolution begins

The French Revolution Begins

Ch. 11 Sec 1


Setting the stage

Setting the Stage

  • 1700s – France considered most advanced country of Europe

    • Center of Enlightenment

    • Large population and prosperous foreign trade

    • Culture admired by many


The french revolution and napoleon

  • Appearances can be deceiving

    • Great unrest in France

      • High prices

      • High taxes

      • Disturbing questions raised by Enlightenment


The old regime

The Old Regime

  • Caste system remained from days of feudalism

  • Three social classes

    • First Estate

    • Second Estate

    • Third Estate

  • Privileged Classes

    • First and Second

      • Access to high government offices

        • Exemptions from paying taxes


First estate

First Estate

  • Clergy of Roman Catholic Church

    • 1% of population

    • Owned 10% of land

    • Provided education and relief services to the poor

    • 2% of income went to the government (taxes)

    • Scorned Enlightenment ideas


Second estate

Second Estate

  • Rich nobles whose wealth consisted of land

    • Own 20% of the land

    • Make up 2% of the population

    • Paid almost no taxes

    • Scorned Enlightenment ideas

      • Radical ideas that threatened status and power


The third estate

The Third Estate

  • 97% of the population

  • Consisted of three groups

    • Bourgeoisie

      • Merchants and artisans

      • Well-educated

      • Believed in Enlightenment ideals of liberty and equality

      • Wealthy, but paid high taxes


The french revolution and napoleon

  • Workers

    • Cooks, servants

    • Poorer than bourgeoisie

    • Low wages

    • Frequently out of work

    • Often went hungry


The french revolution and napoleon

  • Peasants

    • Largest group in Third Estate

      • 80% of population – 21 million people

    • Lost half of income to other estates

      • Dues to nobles

      • Tithes to the church

      • Taxes to the kings agents

    • Resented clergy and nobles for privileges/special treatment


The forces of change

The Forces of Change

  • Enlightenment Ideas

    • Views on gov’t spread among 3rd Estate

      • Question structure of society

      • Equality, liberty, and democracy

    • Inspired by American Revolution

    • Discuss ideas of Rousseau and Voltaire


The french revolution and napoleon

  • Economic Troubles

    • Prosperous economy was failing

      • Population expanded

      • Taxes made it impossible to do business in France

      • Cost of living rose

      • Bad weather caused crop failures – prices of food doubled


The french revolution and napoleon

  • Gov’t went into debt

    • Extravagant spending by king and queen

    • Louis XVI inherited debt

    • Borrowed to help Americans against British


The french revolution and napoleon

  • A Weak Leader

    • Louis XVI indecisive

    • Paid little attention to details of governing

    • Married Marie Antoinette – Austrian royalty

    • Marie spent $ on frivolous items

    • Louis didn’t deal with $ issues til France was bankrupt

    • Estates General called when Louis calls for more taxes


Revolution dawns

Revolution Dawns

  • National Assembly

    • 3rd estate wanted Assembly to meet as one

      • Each person have one vote

      • Benefits 3rd Estate

    • King orders Estates General to follow old rules


The french revolution and napoleon

  • Abbe Sieyes

    • Clergy member sympathetic to 3rd Estate

    • Suggest 3rd estate become National Assembly

    • Pass laws and reforms in name of French people


The french revolution and napoleon

  • Delegates agree

    • End absolute monarchy

    • Beginning of representative gov’t

    • Tennis Court Oath – June 17, 1789

      • Would not leave court until constitution formed

      • Joined by sympathetic nobles and clergy

    • Louis XVI responds

      • Stations mercenaries outside Versailles


Storming the bastille

Storming the Bastille

  • Rumors

    • People suggest Louis will dismiss Nat’l Assembly by force

    • Others – foreign troops will massacre citizens


The french revolution and napoleon

  • July 14, 1789

    • Mob storms the Bastille, a Paris prison

      • Search for gunpowder and weapons

    • Overwhelm guards and seize control

      • Kill prison commander and guards

      • March down streets with heads on pikes

  • Symbolic act of revolution

    • Similar to July 4 in USA


A great fear sweeps france

A Great Fear Sweeps France

  • Rebellion spreads from Paris to countryside

    • Rumors that nobles hired outlaws to terrorize peasants

  • Wave of panic sets in

    • Great Fear

      • Peasants become armed

        outlaws

      • Break into homes of

        nobles


End of the old regime

End of the Old Regime

  • August 4, 1789

    • Late-night meeting of the National Assembly

    • Do away with privileges of the 1st and 2nd Estates

      • Make commoners equal to nobles and clergy

      • Old Regime is dead


Rights of man

Rights of Man

  • Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    • Aug 26, 1789

    • All men are free and equal in rights

      • Liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression

    • Appointment to public office based on talent

    • Guaranteed equal justice, freedom of speech and religion


The french revolution and napoleon

  • Bread Riots

    • Oct. 4, 1789

    • Women riot over price of bread

    • March on Versailles

    • Demand Nat’l Assembly be recognized by Louis XVI

    • Demand king and queen return to Paris


A state controlled church

A State Controlled Church

  • National Assembly reforms the Church

    • Took over Church lands

      • Sale of lands helped to pay off French debt

    • Church officials and priests had to be elected

      • Paid as state officials

      • Offended Catholics in France

    • Church loses power and $


Louis tries to escape

Louis Tries to Escape

  • June 1791

    • Tries to leave for Austrian Netherlands

    • Recognized and brought back to Paris

      • Portrait on money


Conflicting goals cause divisions

Conflicting Goals Cause Divisions

  • A Limited Monarchy

    • New constitution - Sept 1791

      • Limited constitutional monarchy

      • Strips king of much of his authority

    • Creates Legislative Assembly

      • Power to create laws

      • Approve or prevent war declared by the king


The french revolution and napoleon

  • Legislative Assembly designed to be conservative

    • Only “active” citizens could vote

      • Men over 25 that paid a certain amount in taxes

      • Only wealthy people would serve

    • Local gov’t in charge of taxation


Factions split france

Factions Split France

  • Food shortages and gov’t debt remain

  • Legislative Assembly splits into three groups

    • Radicals

    • Moderates

    • Conservatives


Radicals

Radicals

  • Sat on the left of the hall

  • Opposed idea of a monarchy

  • Wanted a lot of changes to be made


Moderates

Moderates

  • Sat in the center

  • Wanted some changes

    • Not as many as radicals


Conservatives

Conservatives

  • Sat on the right

  • Upheld idea of limited monarchy

    • Wanted few changes


Rise of the paris commune

Rise of the Paris Commune

  • Spring 1792 - Radicals create commune

    • City council run by popular vote

    • Take king captive

    • Force Legislative Assembly to suspend monarchy


The french revolution and napoleon

  • Sans-culottes

    • Wore long pants

      • Identified as ordinary patriots

    • Wage-earners and shopkeepers

    • Wanted greater changes in gov’t

    • Lower food prices and end to food shortages


France at war

France at War

  • European leaders watch changes in France

    • Fear revolts will break out in own countries

    • Austria and Prussia take action

      • Urge French to restore absolute monarchy

    • April 1792 – France declares war


France at war1

France at War

  • Summer 1792

    • Enemy armies advanced on Paris

      • Prussian general threatens to destroy Paris if royal family is harmed

  • Aug 10

    • Parisians respond violently

      • 20,000 men and women invade palace where royal family is staying

      • Massacre guards and imprison Louis, and Marie Antoinette


Radical revolution and reaction

Radical Revolution and Reaction

Ch. 11 Sec 2


September massacres

September Massacres

  • French troops in Paris sent to help in field

    • Rumors spread

      • Supporters of king in prison might break out and seize city

    • Citizens raid prisons and massacre over 1,000

      • Royalists, nobles, and clergy


The first republic

The First Republic

  • National Convention – Sept 21, 1792

    • Ruling body of France

      • Chosen to draft new constitution

      • Lawyers, professionals, property owners

      • 2/3 under age of 45

    • Abolished monarchy

    • Declared France a republic

    • Adult male citizens granted right to vote

      • No vote for women


The fate of the king

The Fate of the King

  • Political Social Clubs form in Paris

    • The Girondins

      • Represent areas outside Paris

    • The Mountain

      • Represent radicals in Paris


The french revolution and napoleon

  • Jacobins Take Control

    • Radical political organization

    • Wanted to execute king

      • Ensure he was not a rallying point for opponents of republic


The french revolution and napoleon

  • Jacobins influence Nat’l Convention

    • Try Louis for treason

    • Sentenced to death

      • Jan. 21, 1793 – beheaded by guillotine

  • Thousands of French oppose Jacobins

    • Horrified by beheadings of Louis XVI


Terror grips france

Terror Grips France

  • Robespierre Assumes Control

    • Maximilien Robespierre

      • Jacobin leader

      • “Republic of virtue”

      • Try to wipe out every trace of monarchy and nobility


The french revolution and napoleon

  • Leader of Committee of Public Safety

    • Decided who was enemy of the republic

    • Protect France from enemies

  • Reign of Terror

    • July 1793 – July 1794 – governs as dictator

    • Executes Marie Antoinette

    • 40,000 French executed

      • 16,000 by guillotine

      • 85% were from 3rd Estate


The republic of virtue

The Republic of Virtue

  • Democratic republic composed of good citizens

  • Formed by good education

    • Primary education for all

  • Abolished slavery in French colonies

  • Tried to control prices of essential goods

  • De-Christianization


Role of women

Role of Women

  • Active participants

    • No official power

  • Observed sessions of Nat’l Convention

    • Made demands

  • Society for Revolutionary Republican Women in Paris

    • Asserted readiness to defend republic


Rise of the revolutionary army

Rise of the revolutionary army

  • France’s Citizen Army

    • 1793 – GB, Holland and Spain join Austria and Prussia against French

    • Feb. 1793 – National Convention starts draft

      • 300,000 citizens ages 18 – 40

      • 1794 – 800,000 soldiers, including women

  • Pushed back invading army

    • Conquered Austrian Netherlands


End of the terror

End of the Terror

  • Robespierre attacks other revolutionaries

    • Less radical than Robespierre

  • July 1794 – National Convention turns against Robespierre

    • Arrested and executed July 28

    • Public opinion shifts to the right


New government

New Government

  • 1795 – National Convention drafts new gov’t

    • 3rd since 1789

  • More conservative

    • Restricted power of CoPS

    • Churches reopened

    • New constitution created


The french revolution and napoleon

  • Two legislative houses

    • Council of 500

      • Drafted laws

    • Council of Elders

      • 250 members

      • Accepted or rejected laws

    • Members chosen by electors

      • Owned or rented property worth certain value

        • 30,000 people


The directory

The Directory

  • Committee of 5 leaders

    • Council of Elders chose from list from Council of 500

    • Reactionary and corrupt

    • Many political enemies

    • Economic issues

    • Relied heavily on support of military


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