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Integrity and Professionalism. University Council on Undergraduate Research Summer Research Students Dusty Layton Director, Office of Research Compliance [email protected] Research Ethics. Process of making moral decisions Right vs wrong Integrity and Trust

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integrity and professionalism

Integrity and Professionalism

University Council on Undergraduate Research

Summer Research Students

Dusty Layton

Director, Office of Research Compliance

[email protected]

research ethics
Research Ethics
  • Process of making moral decisions
  • Right vs wrong
  • Integrity and Trust
    • Hallmarks of scientific discovery and publication process

Influences on undergraduate students:

  • Peers
  • The student himself/herself

Source.. The Responsible Researcher: Paths and Pitfalls, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society

  • Removing required reading from libraries to make is more difficult for other students
  • Services available to “ghost write” papers
  • Archives of previous lab reports/tests make it possible for students to use “better data” and prepare for the exact questions rather than study all the material
ethical conduct
Ethical Conduct
  • Academia does not tolerate fraudulent activity ….only effective for those who accept professional norms
  • Threat of punishment may deter some
  • Professional codes of conduct
  • The undergraduate with a sense of self worth and values will not succumb
    • Easy? No
    • Possible? Yes
why does fraud occur
Why Does Fraud Occur?
  • Pressure for career advancement
  • Pressure to get research funding
  • Pressure to get a job
  • Pressure for peer recognition
  • Publish/perish pressure
Responsible Conduct in Research
  • Range of ethical issues in research-

We believe we know, but we don’t

always know

responsible research conduct
Responsible Research Conduct
  • The Office of Research Integrity (ORI) defines research integrity as “adherence to rules, regulations, guidelines, and commonly accepted professional codes or norms.”
  • Research integrity is essential to ensure the reliability of research results and to preserve public support for research.
purpose of rcr
Purpose of RCR
  • Increasing knowledge and sensitivity to issues surrounding RCR
  • Improving ability of participants to make ethical/legal choices in the face of conflicts involving research in their careers
  • Developing an appreciation for the range of accepted practices across disciplines
  • Acquiring information about the regulations, policies and guidelines that govern research
  • Developing and fostering positive attitudes towards lifelong learning matters involving research ethics
in general terms
In general terms…..
  • RCR is simply good citizenship applied to professional life
  • Individuals who report their work honestly, accurately, efficiently and objectively
  • Researchers learn best practices in a number of ways and in different settings…. vary from field to field
rcr core areas
RCR core areas
  • Data Acquisition, Management, Sharing and Ownership
  • Conflict of Interest and Commitment
  • Human Subjects
  • Animal Welfare
  • Research Misconduct
  • Publication Practices and Responsible Authorship
  • Peer Review
  • Collaborative Science
data acquisition management sharing and ownership
Data Acquisition, Management, Sharing and Ownership
  • Data are the foundation of research and science….their integrity is paramount.
  • Almost all types of research include records that should be kept in bound lab notebooks. At a minimum, notebooks can provide a listing:

- The date of research, the investigators, what was done, and where the corresponding research products can be found.

  • Notebook should be supplemented as needed by specialized methods of recordkeeping such as computer files, videotapes, and gels.
  • Do not erase data
conflict of interest commitments
Conflict of Interest/Commitments

Competing demands on time, effort and responsibilities

Conflict of Interest

Conflict of Commitments

- Not inherently negative

- Management of conflicts is important

- Manage through full and regular disclosure

- Identify/address conflicts with solutions (collect data but have someone else analyze it)

human subjects research
Human Subjects Research

Research with human participants has proven

invaluable: advancing knowledge in the

biomedical, behavioral and social sciences

  • Basic ethical principles:

- Respect for Persons

- Beneficence

- Justice

  • Institutional Review Board
animal care and use
Animal Care and Use
  • Animal research provides a model for testing new procedures
  • Knowledge gained provides answers to questions important to advancing the science of behavior and to improving the welfare of both humans and other animals
  • IACUC – oversees the ethical and humane care and use of animals in research
social responsibility and integrity
Social Responsibility and Integrity
  • Work in all disciplines (humanities to engineering to sciences) provides building blocks of knowledge
  • Public funds and trust are placed in the hand of the research
  • His/her findings may lead to new legislation, new treatments, new policies, etc.
  • We trust the results obtained by others in order to develop new hypotheses
  • This requires that professionals in all disciplines be objective, careful and honest
when integrity fails
When Integrity Fails……
  • We mislead colleagues and the public in general
  • Waste of funds entrusted to us and to others that may follow our ideas
  • Hurt indirectly or directly other human beings
  • If intentional, we will loose federal funding/job
  • If not reported, the entire institution will loose federal funding
publication practices and responsible authorship
Publication Practices and Responsible Authorship
  • Authorship is the means by which new work is communicated among scientists and peers
  • Responsible authors adhere to guidelines (professional associations and editorial policies of professional journals)
  • Authors have responsibility to avoid redundant or duplicate publications
collaborative science
Collaborative Science
  • Trust and mutual responsibility is crucial
  • Ways to assure successful collaboration
    • Discuss ideas in advance
    • Communication
    • Form a partnering agreement (verbal vs. formal agreement)
      • Objectives/goals; contributions; criteria for authorship/credits; participation at meetings writing required reports, etc..
research misconduct
Research Misconduct

“Research misconduct means fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing, reviewing research or in reporting research results”

PHS Policies: 42 CFR Parts 50 and 93

NSF Policy: 45 CFR Ch. VI (10-1-02 edition)

case example pat j palmer
Case Example - Pat J. Palmer

Fabricated 6 interview records

Fabricated claim of Ph.D.

(B.S. and M.S. also)

Falsified that she was

co-author on 10 articles

Did I say I have a Ph.D. in Epidemiology?

questionable research practices
Questionable Research Practices

Actions that violate traditional values of the research enterprise and that may be detrimental to the research process.

  • Failing to retain significant research data for a reasonable period
  • Maintaining inadequate research records
  • Using inappropriate statitisical or other methods to enhance research findings
  • Mispresentating speculations as fact or releasing preliminary research results (ie, in the public media)

The Web Guide to Research for Undergraduates (WebGURU)

  • interactive web-based tool intended to assist undergraduates navigate the hurdles of an undergraduate research experience
  • Web-GURU project was originally funded by the National Science Foundation Division of Undergraduate Education\'sEducational Materials Development Program