Integrity and professionalism
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Integrity and Professionalism. University Council on Undergraduate Research Summer Research Students Dusty Layton Director, Office of Research Compliance [email protected] Research Ethics. Process of making moral decisions Right vs wrong Integrity and Trust

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Integrity and professionalism

Integrity and Professionalism

University Council on Undergraduate Research

Summer Research Students

Dusty Layton

Director, Office of Research Compliance

[email protected]


Research ethics

Research Ethics

  • Process of making moral decisions

  • Right vs wrong

  • Integrity and Trust

    • Hallmarks of scientific discovery and publication process

      Influences on undergraduate students:

  • Peers

  • The student himself/herself


Temptations

Temptations…..

Source.. The Responsible Researcher: Paths and Pitfalls, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society

  • Removing required reading from libraries to make is more difficult for other students

  • Services available to “ghost write” papers

  • Archives of previous lab reports/tests make it possible for students to use “better data” and prepare for the exact questions rather than study all the material


Ethical conduct

Ethical Conduct

  • Academia does not tolerate fraudulent activity ….only effective for those who accept professional norms

  • Threat of punishment may deter some

  • Professional codes of conduct

  • The undergraduate with a sense of self worth and values will not succumb

    • Easy? No

    • Possible? Yes


Why does fraud occur

Why Does Fraud Occur?

  • Pressure for career advancement

  • Pressure to get research funding

  • Pressure to get a job

  • Pressure for peer recognition

  • Publish/perish pressure


Integrity and professionalism

Responsible Conduct in Research

  • Range of ethical issues in research-

    We believe we know, but we don’t

    always know


Responsible research conduct

Responsible Research Conduct

  • The Office of Research Integrity (ORI) defines research integrity as “adherence to rules, regulations, guidelines, and commonly accepted professional codes or norms.”

  • Research integrity is essential to ensure the reliability of research results and to preserve public support for research.


Purpose of rcr

Purpose of RCR

  • Increasing knowledge and sensitivity to issues surrounding RCR

  • Improving ability of participants to make ethical/legal choices in the face of conflicts involving research in their careers

  • Developing an appreciation for the range of accepted practices across disciplines

  • Acquiring information about the regulations, policies and guidelines that govern research

  • Developing and fostering positive attitudes towards lifelong learning matters involving research ethics


In general terms

In general terms…..

  • RCR is simply good citizenship applied to professional life

  • Individuals who report their work honestly, accurately, efficiently and objectively

  • Researchers learn best practices in a number of ways and in different settings…. vary from field to field


Rcr core areas

RCR core areas

  • Data Acquisition, Management, Sharing and Ownership

  • Conflict of Interest and Commitment

  • Human Subjects

  • Animal Welfare

  • Research Misconduct

  • Publication Practices and Responsible Authorship

  • Peer Review

  • Collaborative Science


Data acquisition management sharing and ownership

Data Acquisition, Management, Sharing and Ownership

  • Data are the foundation of research and science….their integrity is paramount.

  • Almost all types of research include records that should be kept in bound lab notebooks. At a minimum, notebooks can provide a listing:

    -The date of research, the investigators, what was done, and where the corresponding research products can be found.

  • Notebook should be supplemented as needed by specialized methods of recordkeeping such as computer files, videotapes, and gels.

  • Do not erase data


Conflict of interest commitments

Conflict of Interest/Commitments

Competing demands on time, effort and responsibilities

Conflict of Interest

Conflict of Commitments

-Not inherently negative

-Management of conflicts is important

-Manage through full and regular disclosure

-Identify/address conflicts with solutions (collect data but have someone else analyze it)


Human subjects research

Human Subjects Research

Research with human participants has proven

invaluable: advancing knowledge in the

biomedical, behavioral and social sciences

  • Basic ethical principles:

    -Respect for Persons

    -Beneficence

    -Justice

  • Institutional Review Board


Animal care and use

Animal Care and Use

  • Animal research provides a model for testing new procedures

  • Knowledge gained provides answers to questions important to advancing the science of behavior and to improving the welfare of both humans and other animals

  • IACUC – oversees the ethical and humane care and use of animals in research


Social responsibility and integrity

Social Responsibility and Integrity

  • Work in all disciplines (humanities to engineering to sciences) provides building blocks of knowledge

  • Public funds and trust are placed in the hand of the research

  • His/her findings may lead to new legislation, new treatments, new policies, etc.

  • We trust the results obtained by others in order to develop new hypotheses

  • This requires that professionals in all disciplines be objective, careful and honest


When integrity fails

When Integrity Fails……

  • We mislead colleagues and the public in general

  • Waste of funds entrusted to us and to others that may follow our ideas

  • Hurt indirectly or directly other human beings

  • If intentional, we will loose federal funding/job

  • If not reported, the entire institution will loose federal funding


Publication practices and responsible authorship

Publication Practices and Responsible Authorship

  • Authorship is the means by which new work is communicated among scientists and peers

  • Responsible authors adhere to guidelines (professional associations and editorial policies of professional journals)

  • Authors have responsibility to avoid redundant or duplicate publications


Collaborative science

Collaborative Science

  • Trust and mutual responsibility is crucial

  • Ways to assure successful collaboration

    • Discuss ideas in advance

    • Communication

    • Form a partnering agreement (verbal vs. formal agreement)

      • Objectives/goals; contributions; criteria for authorship/credits; participation at meetings writing required reports, etc..


Research misconduct

Research Misconduct

“Research misconduct means fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing, reviewing research or in reporting research results”

PHS Policies: 42 CFR Parts 50 and 93

NSF Policy: 45 CFR Ch. VI (10-1-02 edition)


Case example pat j palmer

Case Example - Pat J. Palmer

Fabricated 6 interview records

Fabricated claim of Ph.D.

(B.S. and M.S. also)

Falsified that she was

co-author on 10 articles

Did I say I have a Ph.D. in Epidemiology?


Questionable research practices

Questionable Research Practices

Actions that violate traditional values of the research enterprise and that may be detrimental to the research process.

  • Failing to retain significant research data for a reasonable period

  • Maintaining inadequate research records

  • Using inappropriate statitisical or other methods to enhance research findings

  • Mispresentating speculations as fact or releasing preliminary research results (ie, in the public media)


Webguru

WebGURU

http://www.webguru.neu.edu/index.php

The Web Guide to Research for Undergraduates (WebGURU)

  • interactive web-based tool intended to assist undergraduates navigate the hurdles of an undergraduate research experience

  • Web-GURU project was originally funded by the National Science Foundation Division of Undergraduate Education'sEducational Materials Development Program


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