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Status of NuTel - a Neutrino Telescope for Observing PeV   from AGN. Yee Bob Hsiung National Taiwan University for NuTel group. UHE   workshop April 23-26, 2006 IHEP, Beijing. Introduction Feasibility Study Detector Status Conclusion.

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slide1

Status of NuTel - a Neutrino Telescope for Observing PeV  from AGN

Yee Bob Hsiung

National Taiwan University

for NuTel group

UHE  workshop

April 23-26, 2006

IHEP, Beijing

Introduction

Feasibility Study

Detector Status

Conclusion

High Energy Physics Group, National Taiwan University

slide2

CR + X  e2e

~ 1.2 x 103 /PeV/year/km2/sr

Not Well Understood

~ 0.1 /EeV/year/km2/sr

UHECR + CMB N +  GZK 

Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos - Back to 2002

Cosmic Ray Spectrum

AGN ?

GZK 

Firm!

slide4

UHECR Detector

Conventional Detector

?

Window of Opportunity

earth skimming
Earth Skimming

Earth Skimming + Mountain Penetrating

Cherenkov vs. fluorescence

Cross Section

~ E1.4

Telescope



t appearanceexperiment!

Sensitive to nt

ne: electron energy mostly absorbed in mountain

nm: no extensive air shower



three simulation stages

1

2

3

Three simulation stages

1. Mountain simulation: 

+N cross-section

  • inelasticity
  • energy loss of tau

2. Air shower simulation:  Cerenkov photons

  •  decay mode
  • CORSIKA detailed air shower simulation vs. fast simulation

3. Detector performance simulation

  • light propagation + Q.E.
  • pixelization for triggers
  • reconstruction

2002-2004

inside mountain
 inside mountain
  • SM CC +N cross-section
  • Inelasticity & energy loss are calculated by G.L. Lin, J.J. Tseng, T.W. Yeh, F.F. Lee of NCTU
  • Range (distance when survival prob = e-1) are calculated by M.A. Huang
tau flux
Tau flux

No dE/dx

dE/dx

  • Tau flux:
    • Fast simulation: single interaction inside target
    • Full-scale transport eq.: Consider multiple interactions   ...
  • Conversion efficiency:
    • optimal thickness ~ several times of 
    • Energy loss decreases conversion efficiency
lateral profile of cerenkov photons for horizontal shower corsika
Lateral profile of Cerenkov photons for horizontal shower (CORSIKA )

1018 eV

1016 eV

1014 eV

  • Similar profile for showers produced by e– and 
  • Cerenkov ring distance ~ (L-Rmax)tan c
  • Outside ring, photon density ~ exponential decay
  • Detector can trigger far away from Cerenkov ring
photons numbers vs opening angle
Photons numbers vs opening angle

Photon density

1 PeV shower

Shower core to

detector plane

30 km away

Serious drop

with attenuation

No atten.

Atten.=15km

Opening angle (radian)

optics assumptions back in 2003
Optics assumptions (back in 2003)
  • ASHRA-type Mirror + a simple correction lens
  • Multi-Anode Photomultiplier with 0.5o x 0.5o pixel span
  • Light collection : 1 m2 aperture, 8o x 16o field of view,

over all 10% efficiency for γ→ p.e.

the signal and background pattern
The Signal and Background Pattern

Cherenkov: ns pulse, angular span ~ 1.5 degrees

Night Sky Background (mean)

Measured at Lulin observatory: 2.0 x103 ph/ns/m2/sr

A magnitude 0 star gives 7.6 ph/m2/ns in (290,390) nm

Cosmic Ray background very small

Cluster-based trigger algorithm

Random Background with NSB flux

1 km away from a 1 PeV e- shower

trigger configuration

H

H

L

H

n1

n2

n3

n8

H

n4

n7

n6

n5

Trigger Configuration
  • Single Pixel Trigger: One pixel pass energy threshold H
  • Duo Trigger: Two neighbouring pixels pass threshold H
  • H-L Trigger: Two neighbouring pixels with one passes high threshold H

and the other one passes low threshold L

  • Sum Trigger: 1. (3x3) trigger cell

2. Central pixel pass high threshold H

Neighbour Npe Sum pass threshold A=n1+n2+…+n8

Night Sky Background:

H

  • Npe Follows Poisson distribution: Prob(n;μ) = e-μμn/n!,

μ = <Npe> Φ tg A FOV εAεq ,

Φ= 200/ns/m2/sr A=1m2 FOV=0.5ox0.5oεA =0.5 εq =0.2

μ =0.039 tg=25ns ; m=0.076 tg=50ns

Range<0.5km: Majority of photon arrives within 25 ns

Most of photons arrives within 50 ns

nsb trigger rate
NSB Trigger Rate

N=107MC, (32x32)Pixels

For 10 Hz order NSB trigger rate, the Trigger Configurations are:

25ns

Single Pixel Trigger: H=5

H-L Trigger : (H,L)=(5,1)

Duo Trigger : H=3

Sum Trigger1: (H,A)=(1,7)

Sum Trigger2: (H,A)=(2,6)

8 Npe

50ns

Single Pixel Trigger: H=6

H-L Trigger : (H,L)=(6,1)

Duo Trigger : H=4

Sum Trigger1: (H,A)=(1,9)

Sum Trigger2: (H,A)=(2,8)

10 Npe

trigger efficiency for electron shower
Trigger Efficiency for Electron Shower

Sum Trigger gives

The largest range

1.1km for etrig=90%

Sum trigger

are similar

Other Three

triggers

are similar

Conservative estimation is

200 γneeded

90%

preliminary reconstruction

E, x, y, , 

N1, T1, x1 , y1,1, 1

N2, T2, x2 , y2,2, 2

2

1

Preliminary Reconstruction
  • Reconstruction: Minimize 2 for x,y,,,

and E

    • Two Detectors Separated by ~ 100m
possibility for reconstruction
Possibility for Reconstruction
  • Possible to Reconstruct Events
    • Angular Error within 1°
    • Energy Error ~ 40%
    • Reconstruction Efficiency > 90% if triggered
acceptance determination
Acceptance Determination

Integration of efficiencies in phase space

Three independent methods for cross-checking

Results are consistent with each other!

All three got consistent results

best fov
Best FOV

Note that FOV is 8o x 32 o

♤ FOV centered on Kea

♥ FOV centered on Hualalai

slide20
MIME
  • Pick τenergy
  • Put detector on top of Loa
  • Pick τposition randomly on a 20 km by 20 km vertical plane located 25 km north of Loa
  • Emit τrandomly in 60o cone
  • Trace the track to find the exit point of τ
  • Find τdecay point
  • Assume e/π took away ½ of τenergy and find the shower core position (air density 10-3 g/cm3)
  • Make sure shower core is above 1.5 km cloud level

Big Island

contour plot

Loa

slide21
MIME

Make sure the pathway is clear between τexit point and shower core

Find the angle and distance between shower core and detector

Determine the number of photons in the solid angle covered by detector and apply attenuation effect (18 km attenuation length)

Set the threshold at 200 γ’s and check the shower core in the FOV (vertical -8o-0o and horizontal -4o- 12o)

Event rate = 7.5 x 400 xπx 0.1(duty) x 0.8(BF) x eff

The obtained rate for Loa is0.46 per year

acceptance
Acceptance
  • Mauna Loa watching Mauna Kea
  • Higher energy shower Þ Larger trigger area, but longer t decay length (50 km @ 1 EeV)
sensitivity
Sensitivity

Defined as reachable upper limit of flux

Assume F(En) = F0 En-2

Assume no signal in 2 years of observation

Feldman-Cousin method for upper limits: 2.44 signal events

Theo1: ~ 0.5 events/year

4.7 ×102

schematics of electronics

Signal-sharing plate

32 – channels Data Collection Module in cPCI

Hamamatsu

8x8 MPMT

16-channels

preamplifier

10 bit x

40 MHz

ADC

cycle

RAM

buffer

RAM

2 m cable

HV power

supply

Preamp.

FADC

Trigger

daisy

chain

PMT

Trigger

Front-end electronics

Inside cPCI (PXI) chassis

DAQ

Multi-anode PMT (MAPMT) “H7546” of 8x8 pixels is used as photon-sensitive device

Schematics of electronics
schematics of electronics1

Signal-sharing plate

32 – channels Data Collection Module in cPCI

Hamamatsu

8x8 MPMT

16-channels

preamplifier

10 bit x

40 MHz

ADC

cycle

RAM

buffer

RAM

2 m cable

HV power

supply

Preamp.

FADC

Trigger

daisy

chain

PMT

Trigger

Front-end electronics

Inside cPCI (PXI) chassis

DAQ

Computer-controlled HV power supply “VHQ-202M” in VME is used for MAPMT, 2 channels/module, 1 channel supplies 4 MAPMT (256 pixels)

“SBS” PCIVME adapter

Schematics of electronics
schematics of electronics2

Signal-sharing plate

32 – channels Data Collection Module in cPCI

Hamamatsu

8x8 MPMT

16-channels

preamplifier

10 bit x

40 MHz

ADC

cycle

RAM

buffer

RAM

2 m cable

HV power

supply

Preamp.

FADC

Trigger

daisy

chain

PMT

Trigger

Front-end electronics

Inside cPCI (PXI) chassis

DAQ

“SBS” PCIVME adapter

Signal-sharing plate is used for increasing dynamic range of the system in factor of about 10-20 times

Schematics of electronics
schematics of electronics3

Signal-sharing plate

32 – channels Data Collection Module in cPCI

Hamamatsu

8x8 MPMT

16-channels

preamplifier

10 bit x

40 MHz

ADC

cycle

RAM

buffer

RAM

2 m cable

HV power

supply

Preamp.

FADC

Trigger

daisy

chain

PMT

Trigger

Front-end electronics

Inside cPCI (PXI) chassis

DAQ

16-channels charge sensitive preamplifier transforms charge into voltage for digitising by pipelined ADC

Schematics of electronics
schematics of electronics4

Signal-sharing plate

32 – channels Data Collection Module in cPCI

Hamamatsu

8x8 MPMT

16-channels

preamplifier

10 bit x

40 MHz

ADC

cycle

RAM

buffer

RAM

2 m cable

HV power

supply

Preamp.

FADC

Trigger

daisy

chain

PMT

Trigger

Front-end electronics

Inside cPCI (PXI) chassis

DAQ

Holes for mechanical purposes

in future

4 preamplifier boards and signal- sharing plate are connected to one MAPMT

Schematics of electronics
schematics of electronics5

Signal-sharing plate

32 – channels Data Collection Module in cPCI

Hamamatsu

8x8 MPMT

16-channels

preamplifier

10 bit x

40 MHz

ADC

cycle

RAM

buffer

RAM

2 m cable

HV power

supply

Preamp.

FADC

Trigger

daisy

chain

PMT

Trigger

Front-end electronics

Inside cPCI (PXI) chassis

DAQ

32-channels Data Collection module in cPCI (PXI) processes signals from 32 channels, has Trigger logic on the module and memory of 256 ADC clocks. If one event is 8 clocks (200 ns), memory could keep up to 32 events.

Schematics of electronics
schematics of electronics6

Signal-sharing plate

32 – channels Data Collection Module in cPCI

Hamamatsu

8x8 MPMT

16-channels

preamplifier

10 bit x

40 MHz

ADC

buffer

RAM

cycle

RAM

2 m cable

HV power

supply

Preamp.

FADC

Trigger

daisy

chain

PMT

Trigger

Front-end electronics

Inside cPCI (PXI) chassis

DAQ

System (CPU) card

There will be 16 DCM boards (512 channels) inside one PXI chassis

DCM

Active cPCI extender for debugging

Schematics of electronics
schematics of electronics7

Signal-sharing plate

32 – channels Data Collection Module in cPCI

Hamamatsu

8x8 MPMT

16-channels

preamplifier

10 bit x

40 MHz

ADC

cycle

RAM

buffer

RAM

2 m cable

HV power

supply

Preamp.

FADC

Trigger

daisy

chain

PMT

Trigger

Front-end electronics

Inside cPCI (PXI) chassis

DAQ

DAQ – in Linux, inside cPCI (PXI) CPU card

Schematics of electronics
some tests

buffer

RAM

cycle

RAM

Preamp.

FADC

DAQ

Some tests

32 – channels Data Collection Module in cPCI

10 bit x

40 MHz

ADC

C

16-channels

preamplifier

A

From

generator

B

Trigger

C

C

D

Cable ~20m

Double pulse (~100 ns difference)

C

B

A

D

telescope parameters
Telescope parameters

Aperture: 1m2

Image size at FP:

24cm(H) X 12cm(V)

Light guide:

reduces image 3:1.8

Photo sensor:

8X8 MAPMTs w.

512 pixelsX2

for 2 telescopes

FOV: 16o horizontally

8o vertically

three fresnel surface telescope
Three-fresnel surface telescope

---: 8o

---: 4o

---: 0o

Front side: fresnel

1.1 m f

Both sides: fresnel

A fresnel-edge loss: 17%

telescope w two identical fresnel lens
Telescope w. two-identical fresnel lens

Tow fresnel lens are identical

---: 8o

---: 4o

---: 0o

Aspheric lens

0.4 m f

Front side: fresnel

1.1 m f

Back side: fresnel

A fresel-edge loss: 11%

conclusion
Conclusion
  • NuTel is an experiment dedicated to Earth skimming / mountaing watching
  • The PeV cosmic nt rate is ~ 1 event/year
  • The cost is low: O(1) million US dollars to build it
  • Very good project for training students
  • However, lack of funding support in last two years
  • Ceased collaboration with ASHRA last year
  • Look for new funding support from university this spring, if succeed will start the optics this summer
  • Schedule: prototype deployment in ~2007-2008

for initial observation

people who worked on nutel before

NTUHEP/CosPA2

PIs: W.S. Hou & Y.B. Hsiung

Hardware Team:

K. Ueno (Optics)

Y.K. Chi (Electronics)

Y.S. Velikzhanin (Electronics)

J.G.Shiu(DAQ)

M.W.C. Lin (Technician)

Master students

Simulation Team:

M.Z. Wang(Faculty)

P. Yeh (Faculty)

C.C. Hsu (Ph.D. student)

master students

NUU

M.A. Huang + students (Faculty)

From 2002-2005

People who worked on NuTel before
  • Italy: IASF, CNR, Palermo
    • N. La Barbera, O. Catalano,G. Cusumano, T. Mineo,B. Sacco
  • France: Paris, FranceF. Vannucci, S. Bouaissi
  • USA: HawaiiJ.G. Learned
  • Japan: ICRRM. Sasaki
  • Taiwan:
    • NCTS/CosPA3
    • G.L. Lin, H. Athar (Faculty)
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