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chapter 23 us and old world order

Chapter 23-US and old World order

Panama Canal was emblematic of the rise of America to increasingly nationalistic and interventionist power. European diplomats believed they could maintain global order by dividing the world into spheres of influence and creating a series of political alliances. They were wrong. Europe\'s Old World order collapsed in a terrible war.

progressive diplomacy
Progressive Diplomacy
  • Progressive diplomacy,
    • moralism
    • order
    • Increased executive power
  • Driven by
    • Manifest Destiny
    • White Mans Burden
    • Economic expansion
    • Nationalism
  • "Roosevelt Corollary" (1905) applied to the Monroe Doctrine -right of the United States to intervene in Latin American countries.
  • "open door" in China preserved- Roosevelt and Treaty of Portsmouth
  • protecting the Philippines

Taft attempted to substitute "dollar diplomacy" for "dollars for bullets." Unsuccessful in China, the Taft-Knox policies did help American capital to penetrate Latin America.

wilson and moral diplomacy
Wilson and Moral Diplomacy
  • freedom
  • democracy
  • Christian values
  • international harmony
  • American mission to spread democracy and capitalism to promote stability and progress (and American markets) in the world.
  • All had difficulty to instill American-style democracy and capitalism onto foreign countries
mexican revolution
Mexican revolution
  • General Victoriano Huerta-executed Madero- made himself President of Mexico.
  • U.S. intervened and occupied Veracruz
  • Carranza govt. takes over- US finally recognizes it.
  • Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata
  • Threaten US, anti-Carranza
  • Killed Am. Workers and raided Columbus, N.M.
  • John Pershing- sent w/ troops to Mexico to find Villa
  • 1916 troops removed
  • 1917 Mexico adopted constitution

Wilson proclaimed a policy of neutrality. By standing above the fray, he believed the United States could lead the world to a higher peace of international cooperation and collective security.

  • sympathies lay with the British- common ancestry
  • German aggression
  • Economic ties to Allies
  • Germany launched a vicious submarine assault on Allied and neutral shipping that brought the United States into the war in 1917.
  • Sinking of Lusitania
  • Sussex pledge-if Germany refused to stop US would break relations= war
  • Germans announce unrestricted warfare again
  • Zimmerman Telegram- Germany to push Mexico to reclaim lost territory.

Was US prepared to go war?

  • Selective Service Act-draft (conscription)- conservatives disagree
    • training programs in hygiene, literacy, and Americanization, IQ tests
    • infringement of civil liberties.
  • mobilizing the economy with centralized executive agencies, propagandizing the war by using modern techniques of advertising.
  • The result was a deepening partnership between centralized government and business.
  • Large migrations of Latinos and African-Americans reshaped the nation\'s cities and deepened tensions.- higher volunteer rate, segregated ranks
us economy
US Economy
  • Taxes increase
  • Liberty bonds
  • War Industries Board-control production, focus on stabilizing war economy
  • Food Administration- farmers to grow, less waste, farmers quick to take loans and credit
  • Fuel Administration- Daylight savings, stretch workday and save fuel
  • National War Labor Board-arbitrate labor disputes- wages, OT pay, pay for women

Committee on Public information- propaganda

  • Espionage and Sedition Acts
    • June 1917
    • Violated 1st amendment
    • Fined or jail time for
    • Interfering with draft
    • Obstructing sale of bonds
    • Saying anything bad about government or war effort

"Once led into a war, our people will forget that there was ever such a thing as tolerance . . . ruthless brutality will enter into the very fiber of our national life, infecting Congress, the courts, the policeman, the man in the street." --Woodrow Wilson on the eve of requesting from Congress a declaration of war

  • John Jay Pershing- Head of AEF
  • Wilson’s 14 points
    • Open diplomacy
    • To keep world peace permanently
      • open agreements- no secret treaties
      • Freedom of seas
      • free trade
      • Arms reduced to lowest point
      • consider interests of colonial people along with interests of imperial powers
      • Next eight deal with new boundaries
      • 14th called for a league of nations- nations to settle grievances before war

Treaty of Versailles

    • Allies refused 14 points- PUNISH GERMANY
    • Big four-France, Italy, England, and US
    • Russians not invited- Communist Bolsheviks
  • Germany
    • Demilitarized Germany: no air force, reducing army
    • Pay reparations (war damages) $33 billion
    • War guilt clause: forced Germany to acknowledge it alone was responsible for WWI
  • Wilsons self determination: Nine new nations: Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia
    • Ottoman Empire carved out
    • Mandates: Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Palestine (Jordan and Israel)

Republicans dominate congress- angry with wartime controls, taxes, and violations on civil liberties.

  • Henry Lodge-against league of nations- pull US into foreign affairs
  • Wilson suffers stroke- trying to push for league
  • Treaty of Versailles was dead in US- ended war in 1921 in US

Red Scare:

    • Unemployment rises- soldier home, war economy done
    • Prices rising, wages staying the same
  • Socialist party to Communist Party
    • Bombs sent to leaders- Palmer, Rockefeller from anarchist immigrant
  • Palmer raids-invade private institutions, no warrants, no trial
    • Most Russian- fear of communism
    • Question loyalty-socialists targeted (unions)
    • May Day prediction looses credibility

Propaganda furthers racism, and differences of class

  • Move from farm to factory
  • Spending money and living life

"America\'s present need is not heroics, but healing; not nostrums, but normalcy; not revolution, but restoration; not agitation, but adjustment; not surgery, but serenity; not the dramatic, but the dispassionate; not experiment, but equipoise; not submergence in internationality, but sustainment in triumphant nationality...."

President Harding