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Care dependency policies in a European perspective – Selected Issues. Bratislava, December 3rd 2009. Manfred Huber, Ricardo Rodrigues, Frédérique Hoffmann, Katrin Gasior and Bernd Marin. Portrait of Informal Carers Challenges to avoid future Care Gaps

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Care dependency policies in a european perspective selected issues

Care dependency policies in a European perspective – Selected Issues

Bratislava, December 3rd 2009

Manfred Huber, Ricardo Rodrigues, Frédérique Hoffmann, Katrin Gasior and Bernd Marin


Portrait of Informal Carers

Challenges to avoid future Care Gaps

Further Research & Preliminary Conclusions



More than 80% of all care is provided by family carers

By choice?

By love?

By constraint?

By opportunity?


Who cares
Who cares?

Relationship between the carer and the care recipient in percentage

Source: OECD (2005); National Sources for Israel and the Slovak Republic; EUROFAMCARE national reports (2004).


Labour of love
Labour of love

Family help as a percentage of help to people aged 75+ by country and domain, 2000/2001

Source: EUROFAMCARE and national sources.


Other types of help
Other types of help

  • In Russia financial support ‘is the most widespread form of help that older parents receive from their adult children (Kholostova, 2002 p.16).

  • Help in running a farm as a subsistence means is also more widespread in Eastern Europe


It s a woman s world
It‘s a Woman‘s World

Family carers by gender and country

Regardless of „care regimes“

Source: National sources, OECD (2005) and EUROFAMCARE national reports.


Carers united in diversity
Carers: United in Diversity

Percentage of the population aged 15+ providing informal care to a relative aged 60+ (1999)

Intimacy at a

distance in the North

Sharing roof and care in the South

Source: Own calculations based on Walker (1999).


Loneliness in very old age
Loneliness in very old-age...

Living arrangements for older people, by gender (based on 2001 Census data)

Older Northern Europeans likely to live alone…

Greece – Total 65+

Source: Karagiannaki (2005)

… unlike older Southern Europeans (albeit less and less so)

Source: UNDESA/Population Division (2005), Eurostat 2001 Census data.


What children want
What Children Want

Older people want to age in place but...

Question 7a: If your elderly parent lives alone and needs long-term care, what in your opinion would be the best option?

Source: Eurobarometer (2008), question: 7a.


Overburdened carers
Overburdened Carers?

EUROBAROMETER (2007): In your opinion, do dependent older people rely too much on their relatives?

Lack of care services…

Providing care to co-residents…

Heavy care…

… explaining carers’ burden?

Source: EUROBAROMETER (2007)


  • Full-time carers are likely to experience some degree of isolation and/or psychological distress (depression, anxiety…)

  • Countries from the NMS who feel they should take care of the elderly themselves also report high levels of over-reliance


Ageing carers
Ageing Carers

  • They could endanger their own physical & mental health: In Italy 10% of care is provided by the 80+

  • In Kyrgyz Rep. with high levels of emigration, older people are carers of their grandchildren...is this also a pattern for other ‘donor’ countries?



A mid life occupation
A mid-life Occupation

Providing care for older family members by country and age group

Source: OECD (2005), EUROFAMCARE national reports.



Reconciliation of care and paid work
Reconciliation of care and paid work 45-64 year olds

  • Employment status of main carers by country and domain

Source: National sources, EUROFAMCARE national reports, Lamura et al. (2006).



Advantages of remaining in paid work
Advantages of remaining were in gainful employmentin paid work

  • Income and pension rights

  • Helps to maintain social networks

  • Offers a temporary relief from caring role

  • Enhances self-esteem

  • Offers the opportunity to share concerns with colleagues in a similar situation

  • But…financial help to family carers varies among countries


What might carers look like in the future? were in gainful employment


Demographics bound to change picture
Demographics bound to were in gainful employmentchange picture

“Support ratio”: number of women aged 45-64 for each 80 year-old (2006 or 2005)

  • Gender mainstreaming in policies (or lack of)

  • Conciliating support for carers and employment policies

Source: Eurostat


The demographic future of carers has already started older and more often male
The demographic future of CARERs has already started – older and more often male

Average age of carers

Source: EUROFAMCARE national reports (2004).


The migrant carer to compensate for family care
The migrant carer to compensate for family care older and more often male

  • 15-20% of all Italians needing long-term care are cared for by “badanti” – migrant, mostly female carers from Ukraine, Romania...

  • Austria has ‘legalised’ the so-called 24-hours care both in terms of labour law and in terms of nursing legislation

  • Support and integration of migrant carers


Thought provoking questions
Thought-provoking questions older and more often male

  • Ageing of carers: will (healthier) 65+ spouses take over from their daughters and daughters-in-law?

  • Reconciliation of work and care duties…reconciliation of employment policies and support for care

  • Who will take care of the elderly living in the donor countries?


Further information
Further information older and more often male

European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research

Berggasse 17 | A-1090 Vienna

www.euro.centre.org

E-Mail:

hoffmann@euro.centre.org


Thank you for your attention
Thank you older and more often malefor your attention!


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