The Common Core and Historical Investigations: Reading History and The Panama Canal
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 75

The Common Core and Historical Investigations: Reading History and The Panama Canal PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 70 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

The Common Core and Historical Investigations: Reading History and The Panama Canal. Bruce A. Lesh Franklin High School Reisterstown, Maryland. Myths about Primary Sources . Primary sources are more reliable than secondary Primary sources can be read as arguments about the past

Download Presentation

The Common Core and Historical Investigations: Reading History and The Panama Canal

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

The Common Core and Historical Investigations: Reading History and The Panama Canal

Bruce A. Lesh

Franklin High School

Reisterstown, Maryland


Myths about primary sources

Myths about Primary Sources

  • Primary sources are more reliable than secondary

  • Primary sources can be read as arguments about the past

  • Historians use a “sourcing heuristic to evaluate bias and reliability

  • Using primary sources engages students in authentic historical inquiry

  • Students can build up an understanding of the past through primary sources

  • Sources can be classified as primary or secondary

    Keith Barton. Primary Sources in History: Breaking Through the Myths. 2005


Uses for historical sources

Uses for historical sources

To motivate historical inquiry

To supply evidence for historical accounts

To convey information about the past

To provide insight into the thoughts and experiences of people in the past

Keith Barton. Primary Sources in History: Breaking Through the Myths. 2005


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

“As every teacher knows, few students have the skills necessary to conduct inquiry on their own. Although inquiry is essential to education, simply assigning such tasks won’t guarantee meaningful results. Most students need direct help to make the most of their experiences, and teachers’ most important responsibilities is to provide them with the structure they need to learn—a process known as scaffolding.”

Linda Levstik and Keith Barton Doing History (2005)


Using apparts to analyze documents

USING APPARTS TO ANALYZE DOCUMENTS

AUTHORWho created the source? What do you know about the author? What is the author's point of view?

PLACE AND TIMEWhere and when was the source produced? How might this affect the meaning of the source?

PRIOR KNOWLEDGEBeyond information about the author and the context of its creation, what do you know that would help you further understand the primary source? For example, do you recognize any symbols and recall what they represent?

AUDIENCEFor whom was the source created and how might this affect the reliability of the source?

REASONWhy was this source produced at the time it was produced?

THE MAIN IDEAWhat main point is the source trying to convey?  What is the central message of the document? 

SIGNIFICANCEWhy is this source important? What inferences can you draw from this document? Ask yourself, "So what?"  What should a student of history or politics take away from the analysis of this document? 


Defining first second and third order documents

Defining First/Second/and Third-Order Documents

First-Order - The most essential primary source for the teacher on a particular topic in history.

Second-Order - Three to five primary or secondary sources that challenge or corroborate the central idea in the First-Order document. These documents, selected by the teacher, provide a nuanced understanding of the topic by offering multiple perspectives.

Third-Order - Additional primary or secondary sources that students find to challenge or corroborate the First-Order document. Ultimately, students should select a Third-Order document to serve as their First-Order document.

Fred Drake and Sarah Drake Brown. A Systemic Approach to Improve Students’ Historical Thinking


Scim c strategy

SCIM-C Strategy

A tool to help students develop skills to analyze primary sources

Goal- to help students have a more “precise, recursive, and thoughtful approach to historical inquiry”


S ummary

Summary

Quick examination of the source

What type of document is the source?

What specific information, details and/or perspectives does the source provide?

What is the subject area and/or purpose of the source?

Who was the author and/or audience of the source?


C ontextualizing

Contextualizing

Locating the source within time and space

When and where was the source produced?

Why was the source produced?

What was happening within the immediate broader context at the time the source was produced?

What summarizing information can place the source in time and place?


I nferring

Inferring

Revisiting initial facts to begin reading the subtexts and developing an understand of the context

What is suggested by the source?

What interpretations may be drawn?

What perspectives or points of view are indicated?

What interferences may be drawn from absences or omissions in the source?


M onitoring

Monitoring

Reflect upon what has been discovered based upon the historical question

What additional evidence beyond the source is necessary to answer the historical question?

What ideas, images, or terms need further defining?

How useful or significant is the source for its intended purpose in answering the historical question?

What question from the previous stages need to be revisited in order to analyze the source satisfactorily?


C orroborating

Corroborating

Once a series of sources have been analyzed students can now begin to determine similarities and differences between the interpretations

What similarities and differences between the sources exist?

What factors could account for these similarities and differences?

What conclusions can be drawn from the accumulated interpretations?

What additional information or sources are necessary to answer more fully the guiding historical questions?


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

Sourcing

Before reading the document ask yourself:

Who wrote this?

What is the author’s point of view?

Why was it written?

When was it written? (A long time or short time after the event?)

Is this source believable? Why?

Why not?


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

Contextualizing

What else was going on at the time this was written?

What was it like to be alive at this time?

What things were different back then? What things were the same?

What would it look like to see this event through the eyes of someone who lived back then?


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

Close Reading

What claims does the author make?

What evidence does the author use to support those claims?

How is this document supposed to make me feel?

What words or phrases does the author use to convince me that he/she is right?

What information does the author leave out?


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

Corroboration

• What do other pieces of evidence say?

• Am I finding the same information everywhere?

• Am I finding different versions of the story? (If yes, why might that be?)

• Where else could I look to find out about this?

• What pieces of evidence are most believable?


Source work terms

Text: What is visible/readable--what information is provided by the source?

Context: What was going on during the time period? What background information do you have that helps explain the information found in the source?

Subtext: What is between the lines? Must ask questions about:

Author: Who created the source and what do we know about that person?

Audience: For whom was the source created?

Reason: Why was this source produced at the time it was produced?

Style: How does the author use language and rhetorical devices to convey meaning?

Source work terms


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

“As every teacher knows, few students have the skills necessary to conduct inquiry on their own. Although inquiry is essential to education, simply assigning such tasks won’t guarantee meaningful results. Most students need direct help to make the most of their experiences, and teachers’ most important responsibilities is to provide them with the structure they need to learn—a process known as scaffolding.”

Linda Levstik and Keith Barton Doing History (2005)


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

The truth

A lie

A half-truth

An exaggeration

Obfuscation

(hiding the truth)

What are the differences?


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

1850Clayton-Bulwer Treaty : The United States and Britain agree to seek an independent canal.

1898 20-year French effort to build a canal fails after 300

million dollars and thousands of lives are lost

1901Hay-Poncefote Treaty: British relinquish their rights to construct a canal

1903 : Convinced by French construction manager, Philippe

Bunau-Varilla, the United States agrees to construct a

Colombian canal rather than one in Nicaragua.

  • Hay-Herran Treaty: United States and Columbia

    agree to lease the United States a strip of land for 100 years for $40 Million.

    1903Rejected by the Colombian Parliament.

    1904Canal construction begins

What happens between the treaties rejection and the construction of the canal?

Philippe-Jean Bunau-Varilla


President theodore roosevelt

President Theodore Roosevelt

“No one connected with the American Government had any part in preparing, inciting, or encouraging the revolution, and except for the reports of our military and naval officers, which I forwarded to Congress, no one connected with the American government had any previous knowledge concerning the proposed revolution…”

“From the beginning to the end our course was straightforward and in absolute accord with the highest of standards of international morality…I did not lift my finger to incite the revolutionists…I simply ceased to stamp out the different revolutionary fuses that were already burning…”


What is theodore roosevelt doing in his autobiography

What is Theodore Roosevelt doing in his autobiography

Truth

A lie

A half-truth

An exaggeration

Obfuscation

(hiding the truth)


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

  • Examine your evidence and determine if it provides support for President Roosevelt's argument or challenges it.

  • Be sure to consider the context and subtext of your source


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

"Panama or Bust," The New York Times, 1903Artist unknown


Philippe bunau varilla in a 1940 interview with reporter eric sevareid of cbs news

Philippe Bunau-Varilla in a 1940 interview with reporter Eric Sevareid of CBS News

“I called on Mr. Roosevelt and asked him point blank if, when the revolt broke out, an American warship would be sent to Panama to “protect American lives and interest.” The President looked at me; he said nothing. Of course a President of the United States could not give such a commitment, especially to a foreigner and private citizen like me. But his look was enough for me. I took the gamble.”


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

WHAT DOES "I TOOK PANAMA" MEAN?

The only straw at which their drowning calumny could clutch was the celebrated phrase: "I took Panama," which Theodore Roosevelt pronounced in California.

When the sentence was reported by the papers I understood that it meant: "I took Panama because Panama offered herself in order to be protected against Colombia's tyranny and greed."

Recently in speaking to a distinguished visitor to Oyster Bay---William Morton Fullerton, the eminent writer on international problems---Theodore Roosevelt explained the sentence in this familiar way: "I took Panama because Bunau-Varilla brought it to me on a silver platter."

It is obvious that Theodore Roosevelt's own interpretation of his sentence harmonizes entirely with mine.

It does not mean as the advocates of Colombia say: "I took Panama away from her mother country Colombia because the interests of the United States wanted it." It means: "I protected Panama, at her pressing request, from the tyrannical greed of Colombia, because her preservation and the world's interests wanted it."

Philippe Bunau-Varilla. The Great Adventure of Panama: Wherein Are Exposed Its Relation to the Great War and also the Luminous Traces of The German Conspiracies Against France and the United States. Doubleday, Page & Company: Garden City, New York, 1920.


Chicago tribune november 6 1903 panama revolt sets back canal

Chicago TribuneNovember 6, 1903 “Panama Revolt Sets back Canal”

Apparently the creation of a new republic on the Isthmus of Panama by means of a successful revolution was the only means of circumventing the greedy officials of Bogotá, who were always willing to sell themselves out to the highest bidder. It has been freely alleged that the United States officials on the Isthmus, while they did not actually participate in the revolution, allowed it to be understood that the United States would be friendly to a revolutionary move and would preserve the neutrality of Panama railroad so completely as to prevent the Columbian government from forwarding troops and munitions of war along that line. Such a charge is a serious thing from an international standpoint, and President Roosevelt’s administration will not be anxious to pose as a receiver of stolen property or as have having aided and abetted a revolution to secure to itself personal advantages.


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

Philippe-Jean Bunau-Varilla

Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

“Go Away Little Man and Don’t Bother Me”

New York World


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

“Uncle Sam has Already Collected the Philippines, Guam, and Hawaii and it Looks Like Panama is his Next Victim: The Anneser’ll Get You ef You Don’t Watch Out.” New York Times, 12/1903


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

PANAMA CANAL CARTOON, 1903. President Theodore Roosevelt, assisted by Secretary of State John Hay, 'taking' Panama: American cartoon, 1903, by Charles G. Bush


Reading standards for history social studies

Reading Standards for History/Social Studies

  • Knowledge of domain-specific vocabulary

  • Analyze, evaluate, and differentiate primary and secondary sources

  • Synthesize quantitative and technical information, including facts presented in maps, timelines, flowcharts, or diagrams

  • Intentional and explicit instruction for students as they interact with discipline-specific text


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

Source Work/Historical Literacy

Text: What is visible/readable--what information is provided by the source?

Context: What was going on during the time period? What background information do you have that helps explain the information found in the source?

Subtext: What is between the lines? Must ask questions about:

  • Author: Who created the source and what do we know about that person?

  • Audience: For whom was the source created?

  • Reason: Why was this source produced at the time it was produced?


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

Reading Strategies and Historical Sources

Sourcing: When a reader thinks about a document’s author and why the document was created.

Contextualizing: When a reader situates a document and its content in place and time.

Corroborating: When a reader asks questions about important details across multiple source to determine points of agreement and disagreement.

http://historicalthinkingmatters.org/why.php


Writing standards for history social studies

Writing Standards for History/Social Studies

  • Write arguments on discipline-specific content and informative/explanatory texts

  • Make arguments or claims and support those with the use of data, evidence, and reason

  • Apply domain-specific vocabulary through writing exercises unique to each discipline

  • Expect students to compose arguments and opinions, informative/explanatory pieces, and narrative texts

  • Focus on the use of reason and evidence to substantiate an argument or claim

  • Emphasize ability to conduct research – short projects and sustained inquiry


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

"Panama or Bust," The New York Times, 1903Artist unknown


Philippe bunau varilla in a 1940 interview with reporter eric sevareid of cbs news1

Philippe Bunau-Varilla in a 1940 interview with reporter Eric Sevareid of CBS News

“I called on Mr. Roosevelt and asked him point blank if, when the revolt broke out, an American warship would be sent to Panama to “protect American lives and interest.” The President looked at me; he said nothing. Of course a President of the United States could not give such a commitment, especially to a foreigner and private citizen like me. But his look was enough for me. I took the gamble.”


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

WHAT DOES "I TOOK PANAMA" MEAN?

The only straw at which their drowning calumny could clutch was the celebrated phrase: "I took Panama," which Theodore Roosevelt pronounced in California.

When the sentence was reported by the papers I understood that it meant: "I took Panama because Panama offered herself in order to be protected against Colombia's tyranny and greed."

Recently in speaking to a distinguished visitor to Oyster Bay---William Morton Fullerton, the eminent writer on international problems---Theodore Roosevelt explained the sentence in this familiar way: "I took Panama because Bunau-Varilla brought it to me on a silver platter."

It is obvious that Theodore Roosevelt's own interpretation of his sentence harmonizes entirely with mine.

It does not mean as the advocates of Colombia say: "I took Panama away from her mother country Colombia because the interests of the United States wanted it." It means: "I protected Panama, at her pressing request, from the tyrannical greed of Colombia, because her preservation and the world's interests wanted it."

Philippe Bunau-Varilla. The Great Adventure of Panama: Wherein Are Exposed Its Relation to the Great War and also the Luminous Traces of The German Conspiracies Against France and the United States. Doubleday, Page & Company: Garden City, New York, 1920.


Chicago tribune november 6 1903 panama revolt sets back canal1

Chicago TribuneNovember 6, 1903 “Panama Revolt Sets back Canal”

Apparently the creation of a new republic on the Isthmus of Panama by means of a successful revolution was the only means of circumventing the greedy officials of Bogotá, who were always willing to sell themselves out to the highest bidder. It has been freely alleged that the United States officials on the Isthmus, while they did not actually participate in the revolution, allowed it to be understood that the United States would be friendly to a revolutionary move and would preserve the neutrality of Panama railroad so completely as to prevent the Columbian government from forwarding troops and munitions of war along that line. Such a charge is a serious thing from an international standpoint, and President Roosevelt’s administration will not be anxious to pose as a receiver of stolen property or as have having aided and abetted a revolution to secure to itself personal advantages.


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

Subtext, the students argue:

  • “explains why they wrote the given document…”

  • “was important to know who created the source, for when the source was created, and why it was made. Each author had different opinions on the Panama Canal.”

  • “Everyone had an agenda on what they wanted to try to fulfill, making them point out what they thought was important.”

  • “showed who actually wrote the document and where the document came from.”

  • “It was important to consider subtext of the documents because the subtext determined whether the source was reliable enough to base our opinion on.”

  • “reading between the lines gives you a much better insite [sic] on what people were really thinking and the true intentions of the character of the source.”

  • “was important to see the background and views of the authors.”

  • “we took the sources a different way before we saw the subtext and they helped us find the real story.”

  • “if you only look at the document itself you will not be able to see if the truth is being covered in the subtext, so your document could be false.”

  • “subtext tells us why and for whom the text was written so we can establish bias.”

  • “For who [sic] it was written and why it was written can vouch for the validity behind a source.”


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

One student responded that:

“The whole ordeal was complicated by the various motives. The most helpful source was the letter between Roosevelt and Hay because there were no facades. In his autobiography, Roosevelt was obfuscating in order to make himself look better.” Complementing this was the comment that “cartoons may show a skewed opinion only to sell newspapers. Letters are more reliable. Roosevelt’s autobiography was hiding the truth. He did this to protect his legacy.” Here students are making connections between subtext (author, audience, purpose) and the sources and then employing this in their interpretation of the past. In addition, they consider both the sources and their connection to the broader investigation. Instead of compartmentalizing their thinking on each separate source, students are instead linking them into a narrative interpretation of the lesson’s focus question.


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

Student responses about historical investigations included:

  • “to know the context and subtext in order to prevent lies, half truths, exaggerations, and obfuscations.”

  • “research the documents to find out who wrote them, why, and during what time period.”

  • Look at all of the sources, where they came from, and the bias. Most importantly, their intent on sharing the information should be looked at.”

  • “examine the source by looking at the sequence, the writer, time period, the intention of the document and putting it all together.”

  • “obtain data that has two sides of the argument.”

  • “find out who sources are, or are coming from, and consider why they may be telling an event in a certain manner.”

  • “identify key people in the event, determine the main idea and what is happening, and see how the time period effects [sic] it.”

  • “look at all the sources and know where they are coming from.”

  • “Look at the context, subtext, and text and all the reasoning behind it and multiple sources.”

  • “Think about the message of the source.”

  • “look at the date of the source, the author of the source, and the situation it was written about to understand why it was written.”

  • “Leave my options open, and look up as many sources as possible and compare the information given.”

  • “Look to see who wrote the source and where the source came from. When reading a source about a man, you should look to see if the man wrote the source himself.”

  • “You need to evaluate the context and subtext, meaning why documents were written and for whom. People are unreliable so a variety of sources need to be considered.”


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

This approach is encapsulated in the following student reflections:

  • “review all sources and take out the biased.”

  • “not be biased, and try to piece all of the puzzle together to try and find the truth.”

  • “Use a single strong evidence to eliminate source that are contradicting each other.”

  • “Gather many sources, primary and secondary, and pick out the most common things.”

  • “look at different sources and pick out information that you know is true. You must pull out only the facts and leave out information that you know could be biased or unreliable.”

  • “analyze all different sources and have a background on the time period and events going on.”


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

  • “Also, the political cartoons are biased against him, so they are going to exaggerate the bad things Teddy did. The interviews with Philippe B-V [sic] is [sic] also against him, and it was taken long after the issue of the Panama Canal.”

  • “I believe Roosevelt knew about the events in order to protect his own reputation. In a letter he wrote, he said he was tired of those Columbians; his intentions were there.”

  • “However, other sources such as political cartoons depict that Roosevelt took Panama over and broke laws, but also helped Panama to get free from Columbia… Even though the source may have biased opinions based on the point of view that is presenting evidence on whether or not he did nothing or he really did something no source completely agree [sic] with Roosevelt’s point of view.”

  • “In one of Roosevelt’s private letters [letter from Roosevelt to Secretary of State John Hay]…he writes that he is fed up with Columbia and is going to focus on Panama now…”

  • “The cartoons were biased but all of the events included in them, including Roosevelt breaking laws, could not have all been made up…The Muckrakers [creators of the cartoons or the newspapers/magazines in which they were published?] might also be exaggerating Roosevelt’s involvement b/c [sic] they didn’t support Roosevelt…”

  • “However, others, like the Columbians and the Muckrakers, while not the most honorable sources, believe Roosevelt did play a role…”


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

“The various types of sources used to determine the purpose of Roosevelt’s autobiography created problems because…”:

  • “each source had different subtexts. Different authors created each source which created biased information. Some authors agreed w/ President Roosevelt, and some did not.”

  • “Everyone had their own opinion about what they believe. Some were for and others against.”

  • “Few of them challenged President Roosevelt’s contentions while other [sic] supported the contention. Most of them were biased because news articles and cartoons usually only try to show their own viewpoint through untrue stories.”

  • “They were US sources. Some of them were created by Panamanians. They all had different views.”

  • “The truth was twisted in order to make Roosevelt look bad or good. The creaters [sic] of the documents had a purpose in writing or making the source, so they gave what information they wanted.”

  • “We didn’t know what the reasons were behind each sources telling of the events. There was a whole lot of bias from the President [Roosevelt] and Philippe [Bunau-Varilla] who wanted to cast themselves in a good light…”

  • “Letters and Articles can’t be changed because they are primary sources. Plus they are not written by the president of him just the people and the press.”

  • “They were all different sources saying different things. Some were letters from Roosevelt which meant they were lies. Others were newspaper articles and political cartoons which were biased. It was hard to know which one to believe.”

  • “they all varied in opinions of whether they agreed with what Roosevelt said in his autobiography.”

  • “They were from many different views and we could not determine the real story without the subtext.”

  • “some were credible and some were not based on the subtext of the texts.”


The common core and historical investigations reading history and the panama canal

http://historicalthinkingmatters.org/why.html


  • Login