Impressionism to modernism
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Impressionism to Modernism. A synopsis of music history. Impressionism: An overview. Composers tried to create a dreamlike quaility that mimicked the art of the era Claude Monet and Vincent van Gogh were two important Impressionistic painters

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Impressionism to Modernism

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Impressionism to Modernism

A synopsis of music history


Impressionism: An overview

  • Composers tried to create a dreamlike quaility that mimicked the art of the era

  • Claude Monet and Vincent van Gogh were two important Impressionistic painters

  • Art tended to appear unfocused up close, but gained focus as you moved away, so music also could appear unfocused at first listen

  • Music used musical elements to evoke a particular mood or image in the mind of the listener, much like a painting


Visual Art Example 1: Monet


Visual Art Example 2: Renoir


Visual Art Example 3: Cassatt


Musical Characteristics

  • Atonal- Lacking a tonal center or key

  • Whole Tone- A musical interval of two semitones (half step)

  • Modes- Similar to the old church modes

  • Lydian-C D E F G A B C

  • Dorian-D E F G A B C D

  • Phrygian C Db Eb F G Ab Bb C


Claude Debussy

  • 1862-1918, French

  • Studied at the Paris Conservatory and in Rome, but influences ranged from Wagner to Javanese music

  • Used to Phrygian mode along with other lesser known modes

  • Main works were orchestral pieces, piano sets, and songs

  • Associated his later music with visual impressions of the East, Spain, landscapes etc, in a sequence of sets of short pieces.

  • Died of cancer


Clare de Lune


Arabesque


Golliwog’s Cakewalk


Maurice Ravel

  • 1876-1937

  • Studied at the Paris Conservatory

  • Failed to win the Prix de Rome 5 times and left to work as a freelance musician

  • Fascinated with creating music that evoked a far away place or idea

  • Wrote everything from piano pieces to ballet to opera

  • His last major effort was a pair of piano concertos, one joyful and urban, one(for left hand only) more dark and solid.


Maurice Ravel’s Bolero


Modern Music

  • A bit more atonal than Impressionistic music

  • Development to the 12-tone music

  • 12-tone music: all 12 notes of the chromatic scale is used in a particular, reoccurring order


Visual Art Example 4: Jackson Pollack


Visual Art Example 5: Matisse


Visual Example 4: Picaso


Anton Schoenburg

  • 1874-1951

  • Born in Vienna, Austria but moved to L.A.

  • Played and composed from a young age, but didn’t have formal training until his teens

  • Developed the “Serial” method of 12-tone music

  • Serial Method: A mathematical formal comprised of tone rows that dictated the form in which the notes were composed

  • Also developed Sprechgesang, or singing-speech

  • Once in America, returned to more of a tonal sound

  • Taught a UCLA


Tone Row Matrix


PeirotLunaire


Schoenberg Piano Concerto


Anton Webern

  • 1883-1945

  • Austrian

  • Studied composition under Schoenburg

  • Made a career as a conductor

  • Was obsessed with 12-tone music and once learned, never composed any other way again

  • Was accidentally shot by a soldier at the end of WWII

  • Left only about 3 hours worth of music


Webern’s Music


Webern Concerto for 9 Instruments


Bela Bartok

  • 1881-1945

  • Hungarian, moved to New York

  • Attended Budapest Academy and studied under a former student of Franz Liszt

  • Transcribed a lot of Hungarian folk songs

  • Made a career as a pianist

  • Influenced by Debussy and Schoenburg

  • Wrote his final work, Piano Concerto no. 3 to provide his widow with income when he died


Bartok plays Bartok


Microcosmos 1


Microcosmos 153


Igor Stravinsky

  • 1882-1971

  • Russian

  • Parents wanted him to be a lawyer

  • Moved to New York, then L.A.

  • Lived near Schoenberg

  • Dabbled in 12-tone serialism

  • Wrote modern symphonies in a neo-classical manner

  • Music sometimes caused rioting, as in “Rite of Spring” and his version of “The Star Spangles Banner”


Stravinsky by Picaso


Rite of Spring


Stravinsky Conducting The Firebird Suit


Stravinksy’s Star Spangled Banner


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