Nuclear dna and mitochondrial dna
Sponsored Links
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 21

Nuclear DNA and Mitochondrial DNA PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 119 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Nuclear DNA and Mitochondrial DNA. Nuclear DNA. Present in almost every cell Combination from both parents; 23 chromosomes from each parent. Mitochondrial DNA. Each cell contains thousands of mt, each containing copies of its DNA Mt DNA is in larger quantities in a cell

Download Presentation

Nuclear DNA and Mitochondrial DNA

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Nuclear DNA and Mitochondrial DNA


Nuclear DNA

  • Present in almost every cell

  • Combination from both parents; 23 chromosomes from each parent


Mitochondrial DNA

  • Each cell contains thousands of mt, each containing copies of its DNA

  • Mt DNA is in larger quantities in a cell

  • Nuclear DNA is larger in size


Mt DNA is 16,569 bases in length and consists of 2 different regions

  • Coding Region

    • Produces 13 proteins, 22tRNAs, 2rRNAs needed for cell respiration

    • This region has very little variability

    • So everyone’s DNA in this region will be nearly the same sequence of TGCAs


Coding RegionDNA RNA Protein Trait


Control Region

This region is highly variable within the human population

Consists of 2 subregions

HV1 = 342 bpHV2 = 268

610 bp with a lot of variability


Mt DNA is inherited from mom

  • Every sibling will get their mt DNA from their mother

  • Why?


Why Mom?

  • Egg contains 23 chromosomes and cell cytoplasm which contains thousands of maternal mt

  • Sperm contains 23 chromosomes with very little cytoplasm


Zygote = Fertilized Egg

  • When egg and sperm join only female mt survive and are passed onto to new baby.


Maternal Inheritance Pattern with Mt DNA


Mutations occur in the control region of mt DNA at a regular rate and are passed onto children by the mom.


How do we use this information?

  • We can compare DNA from the controlling region to other living humans

    • See how related to you are to each other

  • Compare to prehistoric remains of human fossils

    • Identify where you DNA originated

    • Identify ancestral relationships between modern populations

  • Compare your highly variable regions to other species


Mitochondrial Eve

  • Oldest women who would have donated her mtDNA to every ancestor in the world

  • Comparisons can be made by how many variations exist between her DNA and your DNA.


How is mtDNA isolated?

  • Isolate DNA from cheek cells

  • Complete a PCR reaction

    • Produce millions of extra copies of HV1 on the control region of mtDNA

  • Send amplified DNA away to be sequenced (Identify the exact sequence of TGCAs in HV1 in your mtDNA)

  • Compare your sequence ot classmates and database of prehistoric DNA


  • 1. Isolating DNA


2. Polymerase Chain Reaction

  • PCR


PCR Animation


PCR Animation


3. Sequencing DNAIdentify the exact sequence of nitrogen bases in HV1 region


Sequencing DNA


4. Making Comparisons

Using a database you will compare your mt DNA with:

  • your classmates

  • prehistoric DNA taken from fossilized human remains.

  • other species


  • Login