Cadillac went to France in 1698, and got the financial backing ($300) of Count Pontchartrain , Louis XIV’s chief minister to build a fort and settlement in Le Detroit , the waterway (“the strait”) between Lake Huron and Lake Erie for the purpose of protecting the fur trade.
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Cadillac went to France in 1698, and got the financial backing ($300) of Count Pontchartrain, Louis XIV’s chief minister to build a fort and settlement in Le Detroit, the waterway (“the strait”) between Lake Huron and Lake Erie for the purpose of protecting the fur trade.Louis Phelypeaux(Count Pontchartrain)
Cadillac founded Detroit with 100 men near present day Cobo Hall. Built Fort Pontchartrain in his honor. Built churches, schools, and hospitals.
The southern border was present day Jefferson Avenue. The northern border was between present day Larned Street and Jefferson Avenue. The eastern end was where Griswold Street is today. And the western border was along present day Shelby Street.
“The Pontch” was the first major hotel in Detroit since the 1920s
Later became the Crowne Plaza Detroit Pontchartrain, then Sheraton Detroit Riverside, then Detroit Riverside Hotel. Now it’s the Crowne Plaza Pontchartrain Detroit again.
Ste. Anne’s Church moved to what is now Mexicantown in Southwest Detroit in 1818. The church pictured here was built in 1887.
To encourage French settlement around Fort Pontchartrain, Cadillac (a seigneur) gave land grants (called ribbon farms) to 75 settler families (called habitants) starting in 1707. Some of the street names between the river and Jefferson Avenue are the owners.
the Detroit River
French Ribbon Farms
Missionaries did not like Cadillac because he gave alcohol to the Indians, and cared more about fur trading than converting Indians to Christianity.
Second of four English-French conflicts in Europe that spilled over to the New World
Only battle ever fought in Grosse Pointe (then called Presque Isle by the French)
1,000 Fox and Mascoutin Indians move to Detroit from Wisconsin, and the new commander, Dubuisson, tries to remove them, causing warfare that lasted until 1734.
Fox Indians attack fort for 19 days.
As the Fox retreat, Huron and Ottawa Indians, allied with the French, killed more than 1,000 Indians, allied with the English, in what is now called Windmill Pointe area (near the Grosse Pointe/Detroit border)The Fox Indian Massacre (1712)
Cadillac finally arrived in Louisiana in 1713. He wanted to found a city at the mouth of the Mississippi, but was refused. New Orleans was later founded in 1718.
Cadillac explored the present-day Missouri area in 1715, and ordered the first mining of lead for ammunition (still a major resource today) by African slaves.
In 1717, he went back to Paris, and in 1722, he was appointed governor of a region in France.
Died in 1730.What happened to Cadillac?
Inspired the French to build Fort Michilimackinacin 1715, in present day Mackinaw City, to replace Fort de Buade in St. Ignace.
1713-1743 – Relative peace between France and England, but Detroit’s population grew slowly (only 2,000 by 1760). French established 11 posts in the Great Lakes (3 in Michigan: Pontchartrain (1701), Michilimackinac (1715), St. Joseph (1691)).Fort Michilimackinac - 1715
Third of four English-French conflicts in Europe that spilled over to the New World
French send 150 soldiers from Montreal, and start to encourage more French settlement in Detroit, which remains small (900 in 1749).
French foil small conspiracy of British and Iroquois to attack Detroit
British (since 1707, called British, not English) start incursions into Ohio Valley
British Navy was able to disrupt French trade to Montreal, exposing French weakness.King George’s War (1744-1748)
Final English-French conflict in Europe (Seven Years War) that spilled over to the New World
British and France both claimed the Ohio Valley including future states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Michigan
French, allied with Indians, fought against the British for control of fur trade and prevent British farmers from clearing the land (“fur trade vs. farming”)
1.5 million British vs. 50,000 FrenchFrench and Indian War (1754-1763)
Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia sent surveyor George Washington and 150 militia to get the French to leave the future Pittsburgh area.
No picture of Langlade exists
Sept. 1760 – French surrender to British General Jeffrey Amherst in Montreal.
Robert Rogers led British forces during the war called “Roger’s Rangers.” Like Charles Langlade, he used guerrilla warfare tactics, even creating 28 “rules of ranging” still used by Army Rangers today