The differential outcomes effect teaching verbal operants
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The Differential Outcomes Effect: Teaching Verbal Operants. Michelle Olson, M.S, Mark Harvey, Ph.D, BCBA Ansley Hodges, M.S., BCBA, Eb Blakely, Ph.D, BCBA-D Florida Institute of Technology and QuestKids. Typical Procedure. Differential Outcomes Procedure.

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The Differential Outcomes Effect: Teaching Verbal Operants

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The Differential Outcomes Effect: Teaching Verbal Operants

Michelle Olson, M.S, Mark Harvey, Ph.D, BCBA

Ansley Hodges, M.S., BCBA, Eb Blakely, Ph.D, BCBA-D

Florida Institute of Technology and QuestKids


Typical Procedure


Differential Outcomes Procedure

  • Different reinforcers in a discrimination task, correlated with each kind of response

Differential Outcomes Effect

Increase rate of acquisition and/or maintain higher steady state performance


Lab Studies With Nonhumans:Variety of discrimination Paradigms

Two Choice Discrimination Experiments


Two-Choice Procedure: Correlated Outcomes

Light

Light


Two-Choice Control Procedure:Uncorrelated Outcomes

Light

Light


Two-Choice Control Procedure:Confound????

1. Two reinforcers2. Correlated outcomes

Typical

DOE

Food

Food

Food

Water


Human Application: Correlated Outcomes


Human Application:Uncorrelated Outcomes


Experiment 1: Extension to Verbal Operants

  • Two boys with autism – 8 and 5 years old

  • QuestKids Academy –


Experiment 1 Design

  • Alternating Treatments

  • Dependent Variable:

    • % correct of intraverbal responses

  • Independent Variable:

    • Correlated vs. Uncorrelated outcomes


Baseline Procedure


General Treatment Procedure


Intraverbal Tasks

Correlated Task

Uncorrelated Task


Video

  • Show video Clip


Santi: Intraverbals

Correlated Task

Uncorrelated Task


Results Experiment 1: Santi


Josh: Intraverbals

Correlated Task

Uncorrelated Task


Results Experiment 1: Josh

Decreased # experimenters


Experiment 2: Extension to Intraverbals and Tacts

  • Two different boys with autism both 8 years old

  • QuestKids Academy –


Experiment 2

  • Design:

    • Alternating Treatments

    • Multiple baseline across verbal operants

  • Dependent Variable:

    • % correct responses

    • Note: 100% and 97%, IOA respectively

  • Independent Variable:

    • Correlated vs. Uncorrelated outcomes


Caliel: Tacts

Correlated Task

Uncorrelated Task


Caliel: Intraverbals

Correlated Task

Uncorrelated Task


ResultsExperiment 2: Caliel


Austin: Tacts

Correlated Task

Uncorrelated Task


Austin: Intraverbals

Correlated Task

Uncorrelated Task


ResultsExperiment 2: Austin


Discussion of Austin

Why was uncorrelated more effective?

Correlated Task


Summary of Results


Discussion

  • DOE procedure has promise in teaching verbal operants, especially intraverbals

  • Task difficulty critical element

  • Use when traditional procedures don’t work


Discussion

  • Future Directions

    • Intraverbals replications

    • Recall / Comprehension (DTMS)

    • Different ages / abilities


End

For this PowerPoint and references

Website: www.fitaba.com

Email: [email protected]


Differential Outcomes Effect

Match-to-Sample


Traditional Discrimination Training

Assay: Match-to-sample

Food

Food

Choice stimuli

Sample stimulus


DOE Procedure

Food

Drink

Sample stimulus


DOE Procedure

Food

Drink

Sample stimulus


DOE Control Procedures

Uncorrelated

Correlated

.5 Food/.5 Drink

.5 Food/.5 Drink

Food

Drink

Sample stimulus

Sample stimulus


DOE Procedure: Application

Academic Tasks

Candy

Soda

A

B

SD: “Point to A”

SD: “Point to B”


DOE Procedure: Application

Recall Tasks

Candy

Soda

“Sandwich”

“My friend Will”

SD: “What did you just eat?”

SD: “Who did you just talk to?”


Exercises

  • The DOE is an effect in which different _________ are used for different ________ in a discrimination task.

  • What is the proper control procedure in a DOE study?

  • Pick a task that you are teaching, and design a DOE procedure for it.


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