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# Harmonics PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Harmonics. October 29, 2012. Where Were We?. We’re halfway through grading the mid-terms. For the next two weeks: more acoustics It’s going to get worse before it gets better Note: I’ve posted a supplementary reading on today’s lecture to the course web page. What have we learned?

Harmonics

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October 29, 2012

### Where Were We?

• We’re halfway through grading the mid-terms.

• For the next two weeks: more acoustics

• It’s going to get worse before it gets better

• Note: I’ve posted a supplementary reading on today’s lecture to the course web page.

• What have we learned?

• How to calculate the frequency of a periodic wave

• How to calculate the amplitude, RMS amplitude, and intensity of a complex wave

• Today: we’ll start putting frequency and intensity together

### Complex Waves

• When more than one sinewave gets combined, they form a complex wave.

• At any given time, each wave will have some amplitude value.

• A1(t1) := Amplitude value of sinewave 1 at time 1

• A2(t1) := Amplitude value of sinewave 2 at time 1

• The amplitude value of the complex wave is the sum of these values.

• Ac(t1) = A1 (t1) + A2 (t1)

### Complex Wave Example

• Take waveform 1:

• high amplitude

• low frequency

+

• low amplitude

• high frequency

=

• The sum is this complex waveform:

### Greatest Common Denominator

• Combining sinewaves results in a complex periodic wave.

• This complex wave has a frequency which is the greatest common denominator of the frequencies of the component waves.

• Greatest common denominator = biggest number by which you can divide both frequencies and still come up with a whole number (integer).

• Example:

• Component Wave 1: 300 Hz

• Component Wave 2: 500 Hz

• Fundamental Frequency: 100 Hz

### Why?

• Think: smallest common multiple of the periods of the component waves.

• Both component waves are periodic

• i.e., they repeat themselves in time.

• The pattern formed by combining these component waves...

• will only start repeating itself when both waves start repeating themselves at the same time.

• Example: 3 Hz sinewave + 5 Hz sinewave

### For Example

• Starting from 0 seconds:

• A 3 Hz wave will repeat itself at .33 seconds, .66 seconds, 1 second, etc.

• A 5 Hz wave will repeat itself at .2 seconds, .4 seconds, .6 seconds, .8 seconds, 1 second, etc.

• Again: the pattern formed by combining these component waves...

• will only start repeating itself when they both start repeating themselves at the same time.

• i.e., at 1 second

3 Hz

.33 sec.

.66

1.00

5 Hz

.20

1.00

.40

.60

.80

1.00

Combination of 3 and 5 Hz waves

(period = 1 second)

(frequency = 1 Hz)

### Tidbits

• Important point:

• Each component wave will complete a whole number of periods within each period of the complex wave.

• Comprehension question:

• If we combine a 6 Hz wave with an 8 Hz wave...

• What should the frequency of the resulting complex wave be?

• To ask it another way:

• What would the period of the complex wave be?

6 Hz

.17 sec.

.33

.50

8 Hz

.125

.25

.375

.50

.50 sec.

1.00

Combination of 6 and 8 Hz waves

(period = .5 seconds)

(frequency = 2 Hz)

### Fourier’s Theorem

• Joseph Fourier (1768-1830)

• French mathematician

• Studied heat and periodic motion

• His idea:

• any complex periodic wave can be constructed out of a combination of different sinewaves.

• The sinusoidal (sinewave) components of a complex periodic wave = harmonics

### The Dark Side

• Fourier’s theorem implies:

• sound may be split up into component frequencies...

• just like a prism splits light up into its component frequencies

### Spectra

• One way to represent complex waves is with waveforms:

• y-axis: air pressure

• x-axis: time

• Another way to represent a complex wave is with a power spectrum (or spectrum, for short).

• Remember, each sinewave has two parameters:

• amplitude

• frequency

• A power spectrum shows:

• intensity (based on amplitude) on the y-axis

• frequency on the x-axis

### Two Perspectives

WaveformPower Spectrum

+

+

=

=

harmonics

### Example

• Go to Praat

• Generate a complex wave with 300 Hz and 500 Hz components.

• Look at waveform and spectral views.

• And so on and so forth.

### Fourier’s Theorem, part 2

• The component sinusoids (harmonics) of any complex periodic wave:

• all have a frequency that is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency of the complex wave.

• This is equivalent to saying:

• all component waves complete an integer number of periods within each period of the complex wave.

### Example

• Take a complex wave with a fundamental frequency of 100 Hz.

• Harmonic 1 = 100 Hz

• Harmonic 2 = 200 Hz

• Harmonic 3 = 300 Hz

• Harmonic 4 = 400 Hz

• Harmonic 5 = 500 Hz

• etc.

### Deep Thought Time

• What are the harmonics of a complex wave with a fundamental frequency of 440 Hz?

• Harmonic 1: 440 Hz

• Harmonic 2: 880 Hz

• Harmonic 3: 1320 Hz

• Harmonic 4: 1760 Hz

• Harmonic 5: 2200 Hz

• etc.

• For complex waves, the frequencies of the harmonics will always depend on the fundamental frequency of the wave.

### A new spectrum

• Sawtooth wave at 440 Hz

• Also check out a sawtooth wave at 150 Hz

### Another Representation

• Spectrograms

• = a three-dimensional view of sound

• Incorporate the same dimensions that are found in spectra:

• Intensity (on the z-axis)

• Frequency (on the y-axis)

• Time (on the x-axis)

• Back to Praat, to generate a complex tone with component frequencies of 300 Hz, 2100 Hz, and 3300 Hz

### Something Like Speech

• Check this out:

• One of the characteristic features of speech sounds is that they exhibit spectral change over time.

### Harmonics and Speech

• Remember: trilling of the vocal folds creates a complex wave, with a fundamental frequency.

• This complex wave consists of a series of harmonics.

• The spacing between the harmonics--in frequency--depends on the rate at which the vocal folds are vibrating (F0).

• We can’t change the frequencies of the harmonics independently of each other.

• Q: How do we get the spectral changes we need for speech?

### Resonance

• Answer: we change the intensity of the harmonics

• Listen to this:

• source: http://www.let.uu.nl/~audiufon/data/e_boventoon.html