Confirmation
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Confirmation. Infinitesimal Confirmation. Review. Nicod’s Criterion : A generalization is confirmed (to some degree) by an F that is G. A generalization is disproved by an F that is not G. A generalization is neither confirmed nor disproved by non-Fs that are not G or by non-Fs that are G.

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Confirmation

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Confirmation

Confirmation

Infinitesimal Confirmation


Review

Review

  • Nicod’s Criterion:

    • A generalization is confirmed (to some degree) by an F that is G.

    • A generalization is disproved by an F that is not G.

    • A generalization is neither confirmed nor disproved by non-Fs that are not G or by non-Fs that are G.

  • The contrapositive of All Fs are G is All non-Gs are non-Fs.

  • The Equivalence Confirmation Thesis: Logically equivalent statements are confirmed by the same things.


The raven paradox

The Raven Paradox

  • A red herring confirms the hypothesis that all non-black things are non-ravens.

  • The hypothesis that all non-black things are non-ravens is logically equivalent to the hypothesis that all ravens are black.

  • If (1) and (2), then a red herring confirms the hypothesis that all ravens are black.

  • [So] A red herring confirms the hypothesis that all ravens are black.


The conclusion

The Conclusion

  • A red herring confirms the hypothesis that all ravens are black.

  • Nicod’s Criterion (c): A generalization is neither confirmed nor disproved by non-Fs that are not G or by non-Fs that are G.


The conclusion1

The Conclusion

  • An infinitesimal (i) is an infinitely small value.


The conclusion2

The Conclusion

  • A red herring confirms the hypothesis that all ravens are black.

  • Nicod’s Criterion (c): A generalization is neither confirmed nor disproved by non-Fs that are not G or by non-Fs that are G.


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