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Confirmation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Confirmation. Infinitesimal Confirmation. Review. Nicod’s Criterion : A generalization is confirmed (to some degree) by an F that is G. A generalization is disproved by an F that is not G. A generalization is neither confirmed nor disproved by non-Fs that are not G or by non-Fs that are G.

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PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Confirmation' - betha

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Presentation Transcript

Confirmation

Infinitesimal Confirmation

• Nicod’s Criterion:

• A generalization is confirmed (to some degree) by an F that is G.

• A generalization is disproved by an F that is not G.

• A generalization is neither confirmed nor disproved by non-Fs that are not G or by non-Fs that are G.

• The contrapositive of All Fs are G is All non-Gs are non-Fs.

• The Equivalence Confirmation Thesis: Logically equivalent statements are confirmed by the same things.

• A red herring confirms the hypothesis that all non-black things are non-ravens.

• The hypothesis that all non-black things are non-ravens is logically equivalent to the hypothesis that all ravens are black.

• If (1) and (2), then a red herring confirms the hypothesis that all ravens are black.

• [So] A red herring confirms the hypothesis that all ravens are black.

• A red herring confirms the hypothesis that all ravens are black.

• Nicod’s Criterion (c): A generalization is neither confirmed nor disproved by non-Fs that are not G or by non-Fs that are G.

• An infinitesimal (i) is an infinitely small value.

• A red herring confirms the hypothesis that all ravens are black.

• Nicod’s Criterion (c): A generalization is neither confirmed nor disproved by non-Fs that are not G or by non-Fs that are G.