Secondary inclusion
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Secondary Inclusion. By Courtney Sayward. Background. Previously, special education teachers were teaching the content areas. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) requires teachers to be highly qualified in the areas they are teaching

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Secondary inclusion

Secondary Inclusion

By Courtney Sayward


Background

Background

  • Previously, special education teachers were teaching the content areas.

  • No Child Left Behind (NCLB) requires teachers to be highly qualified in the areas they are teaching

  • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) aims to improve educational results in students with disabilities.

  • Solution? INCLUSION


Summary of information

Summary of Information


Issues with inclusion at the secondary level

Issues with Inclusion at the Secondary Level

  • Attitudes

  • Time & Scheduling

  • Collaboration

  • Standardized testing

  • Skill level gaps

  • Lack of knowledge and preparation


Keys to successful inclusion

Keys to Successful Inclusion

  • Positive attitudes by school community

    • Teachers, parents, administrator support

  • Education

    • Preparatory programs, professional development

  • Collaboration, communication, co-teaching

  • Universal Design for Learning

  • Preparation

    • Adequate planning time and appropriate scheduling (planning periods with mentor teachers and special education teachers)


Video

Video

7 Effective Strategies for Secondary Inclusion Video Preview - YouTube


Articles

Articles


Secondary inclusion strategies for implementing the consultative teacher model

Secondary Inclusion: Strategies for Implementing the Consultative Teacher Model

Article #1 by Laura Bowden Carpenter and Allen Dyal


Secondary inclusion strategies for implementing the consultative teacher model1

Secondary Inclusion: Strategies for Implementing the Consultative Teacher Model

  • Two options:

    • Special education teacher teaching the content (traditional approach) or special education teacher as a “consultant” in the general education classroom

  • Class size & Caseload

    • The smaller the class size and case load the better

  • Ways to increase collaborative planning time:

    • Early dismissal/late arrival

    • Substitutes

    • Rotating planning period for the special education teacher


Preparing preservice teachers for inclusion in secondary classrooms

Preparing Preservice Teachers for Inclusion in Secondary Classrooms

Article #2 by Nancy Turner


Preparing preservice teachers for inclusion in secondary classrooms1

Preparing Preservice Teachers for Inclusion in Secondary Classrooms

  • Preparatory programs:

    • should include at least one special education course; one relevant to the secondary level is ideal

    • Could merge/infuse general and special education courses and ideas so program addresses ALL learners

    • Could lead to dual certification

    • Should include strategies on behavior management, collaboration, and time management


Promoting inclusion in secondary schools through appreciative inquiry

Promoting Inclusion in Secondary Schools Through Appreciative Inquiry

Article # 3 by Peter Kozik, Bernard Cooney, Scott Vinciguerra, Kathleen Gradel, and Joan Black


Promoting inclusion in secondary schools through appreciative inquiry1

Promoting Inclusion in Secondary Schools Through Appreciative Inquiry

  • Day long discussion of Secondary Inclusion with four phases:

    • Discovery

      • Interviews regarding teaching and inclusion

    • Dream

      • Identify common themes from interviews

    • Design

      • Rank themes

    • Deliver

      • Commit to change


Promoting inclusion in secondary schools through appreciative inquiry2

Promoting Inclusion in Secondary Schools Through Appreciative Inquiry

  • Results:

    • Values

      • Top 3: social justice, passion, courage to change

    • Skills

      • Top 3: communication, collaboration, differentiated instruction/assessment

    • Knowledge

      • Top 3: Adolescent Development/learning styles, useful research data, diversity


Article 4 by scott robinson

Teaching High School Students with Learning and Emotional Disabilities in Inclusive Science Classrooms: A Case Study of Four Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices

Article #4 by Scott Robinson


Secondary inclusion

Teaching High School Students with Learning and Emotional Disabilities in Inclusive Science Classrooms: A Case Study of Four Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices

  • “Approximately 11% of all K-12 students have an identified disability” (Robinson, 2002)

  • Case Study

    • Initial Interviews

    • Classroom observations

    • Follow up interviews

  • Four science teachers were interviewed regarding:

    • Planning

    • Instruction

    • Assessment


Secondary inclusion

Teaching High School Students with Learning and Emotional Disabilities in Inclusive Science Classrooms: A Case Study of Four Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices

  • Planning

    • Universal Design for ALL learners

    • Flexible lessons that can be altered if needed

  • Instruction

    • Questioning and classroom discussions

    • Varying instruction to appeal to the different types of learners

    • Cooperative Learning

      • Grouping strategies depend on the student strengths and weaknesses

    • Study Skills

  • Assessment

    • Regents exams


Effective inclusive activities for high school students with multiple disabilities

Effective Inclusive Activities for High School Students with Multiple Disabilities

Article #5 by Margaret Tomasik


Effective inclusive activities for high school students with multiple disabilities1

Effective Inclusive Activities for High School Students with Multiple Disabilities

  • Inclusion of students in a US History course

  • Utilized the students’ IEPs

  • Included the students only for this course and had them create meaningful work that met the goals of their IEPs

  • Students utilized technology to create a presentation and the general education students helped.

  • Students cooked and created a PowerPoint presentation on the addressed units.


What s next

What’s Next?

  • As a teacher candidate, I want to:

    • continue researching this topic and others related to inclusion

    • Take additional special education courses to gain more knowledge

    • Keep an open mind and positive attitude

  • Secondary inclusion has its challenges but I think it is vital to overcome them for the students’ success.


Questions

Questions

  • Do you think there is a difference between inclusion at the elementary level and at the secondary level?

  • Budget cuts are happening all around us. Will this impact inclusion at the secondary level?

  • From my reading, attitudes seem to be a huge limiting factor to inclusion. What can we do about this?

  • How have you been prepared to create an inclusive classroom?


Sources

Sources

  • Carpenter, L., & Dyal, A. (2001). Secondary Inclusion: Strategies for Implementing the Consultative Teacher Model. Education, 127(3), 344-350. Retrieved June 20, 2012, from the Education Research Complete database.

  • Kozik, P., Cooney, B., Vinciguerra, S., Gradel, K., & Black, J. (2009). Promoting Inclusion in Secondary Schools Through Appreciative Inquiry. American Secondary Education, 38(1), 77-91. Retrieved June 20, 2012, from the Education Research Complete database.

  • Robinson, S. (2002). Teaching High School Students with Learning and Emotional Disabilities in Inclusive Science Classrooms: A Case Study for Four Teachers' Beliefs and Practices. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 13(1), 13-26. Retrieved June 20, 2012, from the Education Research Complete database.

  • Tomasik, M. (2007). Effective Inclusion Activities for High School Students with Multiple Disabilities. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 1, 657-659. Retrieved June 20, 2012, from the Education Research Complete database.

  • Turner, N. (2003). Preparing Preservice Teachers for Inclusion in Secondary Classrooms. Education, 123(3), 491-495. Retrieved June 20, 2012, from the Education Research Complete database.


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