Simple harmonic motion
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Simple Harmonic Motion. Periodic motion that has a restoring force that is proportional to its displacement Back and forth motion (repetitive motion) Springs, Pendulums, Waves. Types of SHM. Springs Hooke’s Law – F = - kx PE = ½kx 2 Period (T) = 2 m/k. Pendulums Period (T) = 2 L/g.

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Simple harmonic motion
Simple Harmonic Motion

  • Periodic motion that has a restoring force that is proportional to its displacement

  • Back and forth motion (repetitive motion)

  • Springs, Pendulums, Waves


Types of shm
Types of SHM

Springs

  • Hooke’s Law – F = -kx

  • PE = ½kx2

  • Period (T) = 2m/k

Pendulums

  • Period (T) = 2L/g


Waves
Waves

  • Carry energy

  • Pulse – a single disturbance of a wave

  • Transverse vs. Longitudinal

  • Mechanical vs. Electromagnetic


Types
Types

Transverse vs. Longitudinal

  • T – energy and movement are perpendicular

    • Example – the “wave” done by sports fans during an event

  • L– energy and movement are parallel

    • Example – a mosh pit

Mechanical vs. Electromagnetic

  • M – requires a medium(source) in order to travel

    • Example - sound

  • E – does NOT require a medium to travel

    • Example - light




Properties
Properties

  • Wavelength – distance from one area to the next corresponding area on a wave

  • Frequency – the number of waves that pass a point in a certain amount of time

  • Amplitude – the amount of energy carried by the wave (E is proportional to A2)


Properties1
Properties

  • Speed – how fast a wave moves = its determined by the MEDIUMin which the wave travels

  • Speed = distance = wavelength * frequency

    time

  • When a wave enters a new medium, the wavelength changes while the frequency stays the same


Superposition the combining of two or more waves
SuperpositionThe combining of two or more waves

Constructive Interference

  • All the waves are going in the same direction and are in sync with one another

  • Waves add together

Destructive Interference

  • All the waves are NOT in the same direction and are NOT in sync with one another

  • Waves cancel out



Reflection
Reflection

Free Boundary

  • End is ABLE to move

  • Reflected wave is the same as incident wave

Fixed Boundary

  • End is UNABLE to move

  • Reflected wave is the inverse of incident wave


Refraction
Refraction

  • The bending of waves as they move from one medium to another


Diffraction
Diffraction

The bending of waves through an opening or around a barrier

Think of water waves


Sound waves
Sound Waves

  • Speed of sound in air is 343 m/s

  • Require a medium = mechanical

  • Longitudinal

  • Echo = reflection of sound

  • Pitch = how high or low a sound is = frequency

  • Loudness = depends on the amplitude


Light waves
Light Waves

  • Speed of light in vacuum = 3.0 X 108 m/s

  • Does NOT require a medium = electromagnetic

  • Transverse

  • Mirrors = reflection of light

  • Lenses = refraction of light


Types of reflection
Types of Reflection

Specular

Diffuse


Law of reflection
Law of Reflection

Angle of incidence = angle of reflection


Mirrors
Mirrors

Flat, Plane Mirrors

Bathroom mirrors

Concave

Used for magnification

Convex

Makes images smaller

Used in side mirrors of cars



Lenses
Lenses

Concave

  • Used the make images smaller

Convex

  • Used in camera lenses, microscopes, magnifying lenses


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