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CLOUDY CSF. Specimen No : AG192706Z Selected Auth Level : S --------------------T-------------------T-------------------T------------------- CSFG 0.6 S000F | | | | | |

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CLOUDY CSF

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Cloudy csf

CLOUDY CSF


Cloudy csf

Specimen No : AG192706Z Selected Auth Level : S

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CSFG 0.6 S000F| | |

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LTG comments : CSFG

1 Auth'd 2 Unauth'd 3 Nomin'd 4 Change 5 Reject 6 Options 7 eXit> U


Cloudy csf

Specimen No : AG192705G Selected Auth Level : S

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CSFP 2.58 S000F| | |

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1 Auth'd 2 Unauth'd 3 Nomin'd 4 Change 5 Reject 6 Options 7 eXit> U


Cloudy csf

Specimen No : AG192433T (Haematology) <PgUp/PgDn> for more samples

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26/11/2010 u/k Serum/Plasma

Request Reason : resp distress, presumed sepsis

Sodium 137 mmol/L ( 136 to 145 ) Auth

Potassium 4.5 mmol/L ( 3.5 to 5.1 ) Auth

Urea 4.3 mmol/L ( 1.8 to 6.0 ) Auth

Creatinine 71 umol/L ( 21 to 75 ) Auth

Total Protein 55 g/L ( 44 to 76 ) Auth

Albumin 31 g/L ( 20 to 36 ) Auth

Globulin 24 g/L ( 20 to 35 ) Auth

Total Bilirubin 79 umol/L ( 0 to 29 ) Auth

Conjugated Bilirubin 7 umol/L Auth

Comments :

Conjugated bilirubin can be up to 40 umol/L

in normal babies who are jaundiced: however,

the conjugated fraction should be < 15%

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1 Spec 2 Patient 3 Date 4 pRint 5 cUm 6 DFT 7 Verbose 8 Options 9 eXit X

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Cloudy csf

Specimen No : MG024522F (Microbiology) <PgUp/PgDn> for more samples

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u/k u/k Cerebrospinal Fluid ** NOT FULLY AUTHORISED **

Request Reason : 12 hrs of age- grunting, high crp, twitching on lt hand

Samples received ^2 Q000

Volume ^3.00 ml Q000

RBC's (last sample) 129 /mm3 Q000

WBC's 736 /mm3 ( 0 to 4 ) Q000

Appearance Released for ward e-enquiry

Straw coloured

Turbid

Diff cell count Released for ward e-enquiry

Neutrophils 90 %

Lymphocytes 10 %

Gram stain Released for ward e-enquiry

Gram-negative rods seen.

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1 Spec 2 Patient 3 Date 4 pRint 5 cUm 6 DFT 7 Verbose 8 Options 9 eXit X

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Cloudy csf

MENINGITIS


Cloudy csf

  • Meningitis

  • Most causes are due to bacterial or viral infections.

The infection may be primary or secondary

Primary infections start in the meninges


Cloudy csf

Secondary meningitis is an infection spreading from another part of the body.


Cloudy csf

Viral meningitis is the most common form of meningitis with 3,0000 cases reported every year.

Unlike bacterial meningitis viral meningitis is self limiting and mild to moderate in severity

Viral meningitis often caused by an enterovirus or herpes virus but can be caused by arboviruses


Cloudy csf

Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency.

Causes can arise suddenly, with symptoms worsening within hours.

Rapid identification and treatment is crucial.

Untreated bacterial meningitis is usually fatal.


Cloudy csf

Meningitis can be caused by many species of bacteria but the four most common are

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal meningitis) Usually affects infants under 2 years and those with a compromised immune system. A vaccination program exists


Cloudy csf

Meningococcal meningitis Neisseria meningitids. Seen in college students, infants, children and foreign travellers. It is the leading cause of meningitis and is highly contagious. Meningitis c vaccine has prevented many cases


Cloudy csf

Haemophilus influenza type b

Once the most common cause of bacterial meningitis. Has decreased since the introduction of the meningitis vaccine for children


Cloudy csf

Group B streptococcus, Escheriaichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes are the most common causes of meningitis in the neonate (babies less than six weeks old) and may be passed from mother to baby


Cloudy csf

Specimen No : MG024522F (Microbiology) <PgUp/PgDn> for more samples

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Gram-negative rods seen.

Bacterial Culture Released for ward e-enquiry

+++ Escherichia coli.

Intermediate : ^Cephalothin.

Resistant : ^Amoxicillin,^Cotrimoxazole.

Sensitive : ^Amikacin,^Co-Amoxiclav,^Aztreonam,^Cefalexin,^Cefepime,

^Cefotaxime,^Ceftazidime,^Ceftriaxone,^Cefuroxime,

^Ciprofloxacin,^Ertapenem,^Gentamicin,^Imipenem,

^Piperacillin/Tazobactam,^Tetracycline,^Timentin,

^Tobramycin,^Levofloxacin.

Not Recommended : ^Nitrofurantoin,^Trimethoprim.

Further report to follow.


Cloudy csf

MOST CASES OF E. COLI MENINGITIS OCCUR IN NEWBORN BABIES OR BABIES UNDER 3 MONTHS OF AGE. IN THE UK AND IRELAND ADULTS AND OLDER CHILDREN ALMOST NEVER GET E COLI MENINGITIS UNLESS THEY HAVE HEALTH PROBLEMS THAT SUPPRESS THEIR IMMUNE SYSTEM, OR HAVE HAD HEAD INJURIES OR SURGERY TO THE HEAD SO THAT BACTERIA CAN ENTER VIA THE HEAD WOUND.

INFECTION IN BABIES MAY OCCUR DURING DELIVERY, OR FROM BACTERIA ACQUIRED IN HOSPITAL, OR IN THE HOME. PREMATURE AND LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT BABIES ARE AT HIGHER RISK OF CONTRACTING MENINGITIS.

INFECTION BY E. COLI AND SIMILAR BACTERIA TEND TO CAUSE SEPTICAEMIA (BLOOD-POISONING) WHEN IT HAPPENS AT BIRTH OR IN THE FIRST TWO DAYS AFTER BIRTH.

WHEN IT OCCURS IN BABIES MORE THAN 48 HOURS OLD IT IS MORE LIKELY TO CAUSE MENINGITIS


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