Chapter 1 The Big Picture. Computing Systems. Computing systems are dynamic entities used to solve problems and interact with their environment. They consist of devices, programs, and data. 2. Computing Systems.
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Computing systems are dynamic entities used to solve problems and interact with their environment.
They consist of devices, programs, and data.
Hardware - The physical elements of a computing system (printer, circuit boards, wires, keyboard…).
Software - The programs that provide the instructions for a computer to execute.
Data - Information in a form a computer can use.
Abstraction - A mental model that removes complex details.
This is a key concept. Abstraction will reappear throughout the course – be sure you understand it!
Abacus (2400 BC)
An early device to record numeric values.
Created a mechanical device to add, subtract, divide & multiply.
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716)
Created a mechanical device to perform all four whole number operations.
Jacquard’s Loom(1801), the punched card
Charles Babbage (1792-1871)
Difference Engine, Analytical Engine
Augusta Ada Byron (Lovelace)
Considered to be the first Programmer,
William Burroughs (1857-1898)
Herman Hollerith (1860-1929)
Large, not very reliable, generated a lot of heat
Memory device that rotated under a read/write head
Card Readers Magnetic Tape Drives
Sequential auxiliary storage devices
Replaced vacuum tubefast, small, durable, cheap
Replaced magnetic drumsinformation available instantly
Replaced magnetic tapedata can be accessed directly
Replaced circuit boardssmaller, cheaper, faster, more reliable
Now used for memory construction
An input/output device with a keyboard and screen
Great advances in chip technology
PCs, the Commercial Market, Workstations
Personal Computers were developed as new companies like Apple and Atari came into being. Workstations emerged.
Computers rely on interconnected central processing units that increase processing speed.
With the Ethernet small computers could be connected and share resources. A file server connected PCs in the late 1980s.
ARPANET and LANs Internet
Computer programs were written in binary (1s and 0s).
Assembly Languages and translators
Programs were written in artificial programming languages and were then translated into machine language.
Programmers divide into application programmers and systems programmers.
High Level Languages
English-like statements make programming easier.
Fortran, COBOL, Lisp are examples.
programs to run and when.
Computer programmers began to write programs to be used by people who did not know how to program.
The Windows operating system, and other Microsoft application programs dominate the market.
Based on a hierarchy of data objects (i.e. Java).
World Wide Web
Allows easy global communication through the Internet.
Today’s user needs no computer knowledge.
Programmer / User
User with No