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1. The English Reformation 2. The Norman Conquest. Today we will first discuss THE ENGLISH REFORMATION (16 th Century) Then The NORMAN CONQUEST (1066) Please notice that these events are NOT chronological!. Last week’s homework….

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1 the english reformation 2 the norman conquest

1. The English Reformation

2. The Norman Conquest








Movie suggestion:

A Man for All Seasons,

四季之人


  • On Earth, there is no greater authority than the King. vicious tyrant. He sentenced anyone who opposed him to death, including his best friends and family.

  • As Henry aged, he became mad and irrational, but no one could stand up to him. He is one of western civilization’s most famous tyrants.


  • Henry’s first wife vicious tyrant. He sentenced anyone who opposed him to death, including his best friends and family.

  • Devout(虔诚) Catholic.

  • 1 daughter, Queen Mary I

  • She was briefly married to Henry’s elder brother, who died at a young age.

  • Henry had their 24-year marriage annulled so he could marry Anne Boleyn.


  • Convinced the King to leave his wife and marry her. vicious tyrant. He sentenced anyone who opposed him to death, including his best friends and family.

  • Anne Boleyn is the second wife of King Henry VIII.

  • She is later executed for treason.

  • Anne’s daughter is Queen Elizabeth I.


The great matter
The Great Matter vicious tyrant. He sentenced anyone who opposed him to death, including his best friends and family.

The events that led to the English Reformation are known as “The Great Matter”


  • Henry wanted a son, and he did not believe that his wife could give him one. And he wanted Anne Boleyn…

  • Henry found in the Bible that if a man marries his brother’s wife, his marriage will be childless. Thus, the King says his marriage is cursed by God, and he asks the Pope to have his marriage annulled (废止).

  • The Church refused to annul the marriage

  • This political dispute led to England’s split from the Roman Catholic Church.


  • Henry established a separate Church of England, with himself as the “supreme governor.”

  • Since, England has remained a protestant country.

    However…

  • After his death, Henry’s Catholic daughter, Mary I, again brought England & Rome together, but after Mary’s death, Elizabeth I re-established the Church of England. (We watched this in the movie Elizabeth)

CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL




The tower of london
The Tower of London her killed so that he may marry another another woman (Jane Seymour).


The tower of london1
The Tower of London her killed so that he may marry another another woman (Jane Seymour).

  • One of England’s most famous places.

  • Historically, the Tower of London is a fortress, a palace, and a prison, especially for high status prisoners, such as Anne Boleyn.

  • Today it’s a popular tourist site and is home to the Crown jewels.


  • “Traitor’s Gate” is a famous site at the Tower. Many who entered the gate would be executed.


The tower of london2
The Tower of London her killed so that he may marry another another woman (Jane Seymour).

At least 6 ravens are always kept in the tower.

Legend says that if the ravens leave the tower, then the entire English kingdom will fall.


  • her killed so that he may marry another another woman (Jane Seymour).The Crown Jewels” of England are guarded in the Tower. (The jewels of the monarch worn/used during coronation & other state events)



Invasion of the french from normandy

Invasion of the French from Normandy. (French) invasion of England.


We are traveling back in time. The Norman Conquest happens almost 500 years before Henry VIII is King.


Funeral of King Edward the Confessor almost 500 years before Henry VIII is King.

The English King Edward the Confessor died without a child. Three men claimed they were the rightful heir.

Including William, the Duke of Normandy.





  • They did not bring great numbers of settlers. Instead, the Normans removed the Anglo-Saxon ruling class and replaced it with a foreign, French-speaking monarchy & aristocracy (贵族).

  • The common people remained Anglo-Saxon.

  • Government and church positions were also given to Normans.



  • Beckett (1968) conquest of England.

  • The next movie we will watch will bring together some topics we have already discussed and some topics we will discuss in the future.


  • The film takes place during the late 12th century, about 100 years after the 1066 Norman Conquest of England.

  • England is ruled by French, and is Catholic.

  • The main characters of the film are King Henry II and Thomas Becket (a Saxon). The two men are great friends, until Henry II makes Becket an important leader in the church…


  • King Henry II makes Thomas Becket the Archbishop ( years after the 1066 Norman Conquest of England.大主教) of Canterbury.

  • Once he is Archbishop, Thomas Becket does not find it so easy to follow the King’s orders. The King has Becket murdered in the Canterbury Cathedral.

  • The Canterbury Cathedral remains famous for this historical event. Today it is also famous because it is the head church of the Anglican Church.



  • end II is going to be punished for the murder of Thomas Becket…


The tower of london3
The Tower of London II is going to be punished for the murder of Thomas Becket…

  • To be “hanged, drawn, and quartered” was the penalty for treason (叛国罪) in medieval England.

  • It is a gruesome form of execution and torture.

  • The man is hanged until almost dead. Then his organs are pulled out of his body while he is still alive. (“drawn”)

  • At last his body is cut into 4 pieces (“quartered”)

Traitor’s heads on London Bridge


The tower of london4
The Tower of London II is going to be punished for the murder of Thomas Becket…

  • Most executions were public and held outside the tower, but a rare few, such as Anne Boleyn’s, were private.

“The Execution of Lady Jane Grey”

by Paul Delaroche


The tower of london5
The Tower of London II is going to be punished for the murder of Thomas Becket…

At least 6 ravens are always kept in the tower.

Legend says that if the ravens leave the tower, then the entire English kingdom will fall.


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