1 the english reformation 2 the norman conquest
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1. The English Reformation 2. The Norman Conquest. Today we will first discuss THE ENGLISH REFORMATION (16 th Century) Then The NORMAN CONQUEST (1066) Please notice that these events are NOT chronological!. Last week’s homework….

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1. The English Reformation 2. The Norman Conquest

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1. The English Reformation

2. The Norman Conquest

  • Today we will first discuss THE ENGLISH REFORMATION (16th Century)

  • Then The NORMAN CONQUEST (1066)

  • Please notice that these events are NOT chronological!

  • Last week’s homework…

  • The Other Boleyn Girl describes the events that lead to the English Reformation.

  • The English Reformation: a series of events in the 16th-century by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.

  • During the time, All of Europe is affected by the Protestant Reformation…

  • Nevertheless the Roman Catholic Church, is still most powerful in the politics and religion of the Western world.

  • King of England for 38 years. Most famous for:

  • Married 6 women, had 2 beheaded

  • His marriage to Anne Boleyn led to the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church.

  • As a young man, King Henry was described as handsome and athletic. He was also a talented writer.

  • Later in life, he was fat and sickly. He also became a vicious tyrant. He sentenced anyone who opposed him to death, including his best friends and family.

Movie suggestion:

A Man for All Seasons,


  • On Earth, there is no greater authority than the King.

  • As Henry aged, he became mad and irrational, but no one could stand up to him. He is one of western civilization’s most famous tyrants.

  • Henry’s first wife

  • Devout(虔诚) Catholic.

  • 1 daughter, Queen Mary I

  • She was briefly married to Henry’s elder brother, who died at a young age.

  • Henry had their 24-year marriage annulled so he could marry Anne Boleyn.

  • Convinced the King to leave his wife and marry her.

  • Anne Boleyn is the second wife of King Henry VIII.

  • She is later executed for treason.

  • Anne’s daughter is Queen Elizabeth I.

The Great Matter

The events that led to the English Reformation are known as “The Great Matter”

  • Henry wanted a son, and he did not believe that his wife could give him one. And he wanted Anne Boleyn…

  • Henry found in the Bible that if a man marries his brother’s wife, his marriage will be childless. Thus, the King says his marriage is cursed by God, and he asks the Pope to have his marriage annulled (废止).

  • The Church refused to annul the marriage

  • This political dispute led to England’s split from the Roman Catholic Church.

  • Henry established a separate Church of England, with himself as the “supreme governor.”

  • Since, England has remained a protestant country.


  • After his death, Henry’s Catholic daughter, Mary I, again brought England & Rome together, but after Mary’s death, Elizabeth I re-established the Church of England. (We watched this in the movie Elizabeth)


  • Anne Boleyn had a difficult relationship w/ the King and she did not bear a son (only one daughter, Elizabeth I).

  • She was accused of treason (叛国罪), witchcraft, and incest. Then killed in the Tower of London.

  • It is believed the evidence against her was false

  • The people were all under pressure from King Henry to have her killed so that he may marry another another woman (Jane Seymour).

  • 10 days after she was killed, King Henry married his next wife, Jane Seymour

The Tower of London

The Tower of London

  • One of England’s most famous places.

  • Historically, the Tower of London is a fortress, a palace, and a prison, especially for high status prisoners, such as Anne Boleyn.

  • Today it’s a popular tourist site and is home to the Crown jewels.

  • It is most famous as a prison.

  • “Traitor’s Gate” is a famous site at the Tower. Many who entered the gate would be executed.

The Tower of London

At least 6 ravens are always kept in the tower.

Legend says that if the ravens leave the tower, then the entire English kingdom will fall.

  • “The Crown Jewels” of England are guarded in the Tower. (The jewels of the monarch worn/used during coronation & other state events)

The tower of London was founded in 1066, after the Norman (French) invasion of England.

Invasion of the French from Normandy.

We are traveling back in time. The Norman Conquest happens almost 500 years before Henry VIII is King.

Funeral of King Edward the Confessor

The English King Edward the Confessor died without a child. Three men claimed they were the rightful heir.

Including William, the Duke of Normandy.

  • The Norman Conquest is the invasion and settlement of England by the Normans following the victory of the Battle of Hastings. (1066)

  • Normans are from Northern France.

  • The Battle of Hastings is one of the most famous battles in English History.

  • Norman victory.

  • Shortly after, the Normans take control of England.

  • William the Conqueror was the first Norman King of England.

  • They did not bring great numbers of settlers. Instead, the Normans removed the Anglo-Saxon ruling class and replaced it with a foreign, French-speaking monarchy & aristocracy (贵族).

  • The common people remained Anglo-Saxon.

  • Government and church positions were also given to Normans.

  • The Norman conquest is viewed as the last successful conquest of England.

  • The descendents of William the Conqueror ruled England until 1485.

  • Beckett (1968)

  • The next movie we will watch will bring together some topics we have already discussed and some topics we will discuss in the future.

  • The film takes place during the late 12th century, about 100 years after the 1066 Norman Conquest of England.

  • England is ruled by French, and is Catholic.

  • The main characters of the film are King Henry II and Thomas Becket (a Saxon). The two men are great friends, until Henry II makes Becket an important leader in the church…

  • King Henry II makes Thomas Becket the Archbishop (大主教) of Canterbury.

  • Once he is Archbishop, Thomas Becket does not find it so easy to follow the King’s orders. The King has Becket murdered in the Canterbury Cathedral.

  • The Canterbury Cathedral remains famous for this historical event. Today it is also famous because it is the head church of the Anglican Church.

  • The movie begins at Canterbury Cathedral, where King Henry II is going to be punished for the murder of Thomas Becket…

  • The King begins to remember his friendship with Thomas Becket, and the circumstances of their breakup.

  • end

The Tower of London

  • To be “hanged, drawn, and quartered” was the penalty for treason (叛国罪) in medieval England.

  • It is a gruesome form of execution and torture.

  • The man is hanged until almost dead. Then his organs are pulled out of his body while he is still alive. (“drawn”)

  • At last his body is cut into 4 pieces (“quartered”)

Traitor’s heads on London Bridge

The Tower of London

  • Most executions were public and held outside the tower, but a rare few, such as Anne Boleyn’s, were private.

“The Execution of Lady Jane Grey”

by Paul Delaroche

The Tower of London

At least 6 ravens are always kept in the tower.

Legend says that if the ravens leave the tower, then the entire English kingdom will fall.

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