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RTI & Learning Supports: Addressing Barriers to Learning & Teaching and Re-engaging Disconnected Students

UCLA


We just missed the school bus.

\ Don’t worry. I heard the principal say

\ no child will be left behind.

/

UCLA


In the accompanying handouts we have included more than we cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.

Feel free to use any handout as is or by adapting them.

UCLA


Topics to be covered
Topics to be Covered cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.

  • Urban Schools: Can Teachers Go it Alone?

    A Big Picture View of Why They Shouldn’t

    Be Asked to Do So

  • What Teachers Can Do to Enable Learning

UCLA


Topics
Topics cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.

In discussing what teachers can do to enable learning,

we will emphasize:

(A) Using Response to Intervention as an Opportunity to

Work With Others

(B) Pursuing Response to Intervention Sequentially and Effectively

(C) Understanding and Applying Intrinsic Motivation

  • Pursuing Teaching as One Strategy in a Comprehensive

    System of Student and Learning Supports

UCLA


I. cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.Urban Schools:

Can Teachers Go it Alone?

A Big Picture View of Why They Shouldn’t

be Asked to Do So

UCLA


<><><><><><><><><> cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.

The current focus of school improvement policy and practice is too limited to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed at school.

<><><><><><><><><>

UCLA


The limited focus contributes to: cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.

  • High Student Dropout Rates

UCLA


The limited focus contributes to: cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.

  • High Student Dropout Rates

  • High Teacher Dropout Rates

UCLA


The limited focus contributes to: cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.

  • High Student Dropout Rates

  • High Teacher Dropout Rates

  • Continuing Achievement Gap

UCLA


The limited focus contributes to: cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.

  • High Student Dropout Rates

  • High Teacher Dropout Rates

  • Continuing Achievement Gap

  • So Many Schools Designated as Low Performing

UCLA


The limited focus contributes to: cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.

  • High Student Dropout Rates

  • High Teacher Dropout Rates

  • Continuing Achievement Gap

  • So Many Schools Designated as Low Performing

  • High Stakes Testing Taking its Toll on Students

UCLA


The limited focus contributes to: cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.

  • High Student Dropout Rates

  • High Teacher Dropout Rates

  • Continuing Achievement Gap

  • So Many Schools Designated as Low Performing

  • High Stakes Testing Taking its Toll on Students

  • Plateau Effect

UCLA


Some of the data: cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.

The dropout rate for our nation remains unacceptably high. In 2006, the Education Trust reported that nearly 25 percent of the ninth grade population will not end up graduating from high school.

UCLA


Some of the data: cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.

Take reading levels as an example.

Despite reports of small recent gains, most American students, across grade levels, are reading at the most basic levels and “only about 30 percent of high school students read proficiently and more than a quarter read below grade level.”

UCLA


Data from the cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) clearly shows the plateau effect

related to academic achievement.

UCLA


Three Lenses for Viewing cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.

School Improvement Efforts

in Urban Schools

UCLA


Lens #1 = All Students cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.

Not just some students–

ALL youngsters

are to have an equal

opportunity to succeed at school

UCLA


ALL Students as Learners cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.

Range of Learners

Motivationally

ready and able

Not very

motivated/

lacking

prerequisite

skills/

different rates

& styles/

minor

vulnerabilities

Avoidant/

very deficient

in capabilities


Lens #2 = Barriers to Learning and School Improvement cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.

Range of Learners

Instructional

Component

Classroom

Teaching

+

Enrichment

Activity

I = Motivationally

ready and able

Not very

motivated/

lacking

prerequisite

II = skills/

different rates

& styles/

minor

vulnerabilities

III = Avoidant/

very deficient

in capabilities

No barriers

Desired

Outcomes

(High Expectations

& Accountability)

Barriers

To

Learning,

Development,

Teaching

(High Standards)

UCLA


Appreciating the Full Range of cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.

Barriers to Learning and School Improvement –

For most students, it’s more about

  • Environmental Conditions

    • Neighborhood

    • Family

    • School and Peers

      than about

  • Individual deficits

    And, of course, a holistic approach emphasizes

    >Protective Buffers (strengths, resiliency)

    >Promoting Full Development


Examples of environmental conditions
Examples of cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.EnvironmentalConditions

  • extreme economic deprivation

  • community disorganization, including high levels of mobility

  • violence, drugs, etc.

  • minority and/or immigrant status

UCLA


Examples of family conditions
Examples of cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.Family Conditions

  • chronic poverty

  • conflict/disruptions/violence

  • substance abuse

  • models problem behavior

  • abusive caretaking

  • inadequate provision for quality child care

UCLA


Examples of school peer conditions
Examples of cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.School & Peer Conditions

  • poor quality school

  • negative encounters with teachers

  • negative encounters with peers

  • inappropriate peer models

UCLA


Examples of individual conditions
Examples of cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.Individual Conditions

  • medical problems

  • low birth weight/neurodevelopmental delay

  • psychophysiological problems

  • difficult temperament & adjustment problems

  • inadequate nutrition

UCLA


Caution: Don’t let anyone cover in the power point slides. Our hope is that you will look the handouts over when you have time.

misinterpret the term

>Barriers to learning

It encompasses much more than a deficit model of students.

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And, it is part of a holistic approach that emphasizes the importance of

>Protective Buffers

(e.g., strengths, assets, resiliency, accommodations)

&

>Promoting Full Development

UCLA


Lens 3 engagement disengagement
Lens # 3 = Engagement & Disengagement importance of

Source of Motivation

Extrinsics Intrinsics Intrinsics/

Extrinsics

Engagement

Intervention

Concerns

Disengagement

(psychological

reactance)

Avoiding Over-reliance on Extrinsics,

Maximizing Intrinsic Motivation,

Minimizing Behavioral Control Strategies

UCLA


Engaging re engaging students in classroom learning
Engaging & Re-engaging Students in Classroom Learning importance of

It’s time to pay greater attention to how schools

>maximize Intrinsic Motivation

>minimize Behavior Control Strategies

>re-engage Disconnected Students

>sustain Teacher Motivation

UCLA


Brief activity
Brief Activity importance of

Picture students who do not come to school motivated and ready to learn.

Then,

  • Using the three lenses, jot down what you think urban schools are doing to:

    (1) Address barriers to learning

    (2) Re-engage disconnected students


In addressing barriers to learning & importance of

re-engaging disconnected students

Are Teachers Going it Alone?

UCLA


What we see around the country
What we see around the country importance of

Psychological Testing

Clinic

After-School Programs

HIV/Aids Prevention

Pupil Services

Health Services

Violence & Crime Prevention

Student & Learning Supports

Physical Education

Special Education

Health

Education

Nutrition Education

Juvenile Court Services

District

School Lunch Program

Community-Based Organizations

Drug Prevention

Counseling

Mental Health Services

Drug Services

Social Services

Pregnancy Prevention

Codes of

Discipline

Smoking Cessation For Staff

HIV/AIDS Services

Child Protective Services

UCLA


The problems with student learning supports
The Problems with Student & Learning Supports importance of

Current situation at all levels in the educational system

with respect to student/learning supports is that the efforts are

Marginalized in school improvement

policy and practice.

This leads to:

  • Fragmentation

  • Poor cost-effectiveness (up to 25% of a school budget used in too limited and often redundant ways)

  • Counterproductive competition for sparse resources (among school support staff and with community-based professionals who link with schools)


Why importance of the Marginalization?

How school improvement policy and practice

addresses barriers to learning and teaching

Direct Facilitation of Learning & Development

Safe schools &

Some Student & FamilyAssistance

Besides offering a small amount of school-owned student "support” services, schools outreach to the community to add a few school-based / linked services.

Instructional / Developmental Component

Management Component

Governance and Resource Management


Clearly, there are some supports; what’s missing is a dedicated, unified, and comprehensive component directly focused on:

(1) addressing barriers to learning & teaching

AND

(2) re-engaging students who have become

disconnected from classroom instruction


The need is to move from the prevailing two-component framework

to a three-component framework in order to develop a

Unified and Comprehensive System of Learning Supports

Addressing Barriers to Learning/Teaching

(Enabling or Learning Supports Component)

Direct Facilitation of Learning

(Instructional Component)

Examples of Initiatives, programs and services that

belong under the umbrella

>positive behavioral supports

>programs for safe and drug free schools

>bi-lingual, cultural, and other diversity programs

>compensatory education programs

>family engagement programs

>special education programs

>mandates stemming from the No Child Left

Behind Act & other federal programs

Governance and Resource Management

(Management Component)

UCLA


Activity: framework

Discuss what you think teachers at urban schools would answer if asked what proportion of their students show up each day motivationally ready and able to do what the teacher has planned to teach that day.

Then, discuss:

Why are so many students not motivationally ready and able?

After your discussion, enjoy a break.


UCLA framework


Some matters that work against dealing framework

effectively with addressing barriers

to learning and teaching


II. What Teachers Can Do to Enable Learning framework

A. Use Response to Intervention as an Opportunity to Work With Others

B. Pursue Response to Intervention Sequentially and Effectively

C. Understand and Apply Intrinsic Motivation

D. Pursue Teaching as One Strategy in a Comprehensive System of Student and Learning Supports

UCLA



  • Using RTI to Work With OthersEnable Learning

    • What is a Broadened View of RTI?

    • Inviting Assistance into the Classroom

    • Promoting a Positive School and

      Classroom Climate

    • Redesigning Classroom Strategies

UCLA


(2) Work With OthersPersonalization is Fundamental to RTI

and Goes Beyond Individualization

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Needed: An Integrated Sequence of Interventions that Includes

a Comprehensive System of Learning Supports

Promoting learning & Healthy Development

plus

Prevention of Problems (System of Prevention)

as necessary

Intervening as early after onset of

problems as is feasible

(System of Early Intervention)

as necessary

Specialized assistance for those with severe, pervasive, or chronic problems (System of Care)

UCLA


Instruction Sequence and Levels for RTI Includes

Step 1. Personalizing Instruction Add Step 2 as necessary

Step 2. Special assistance*

>for students who continue to have problems;

>maintained only as long as needed

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If Needs Includes

Are minor

Level A Focus

Interventions that observable factors for performing

Step 2. As necessary: Best special practices (special assistance, such as remediation, rehabilitation, treatment) are used differentially for minor and severe problems

As soon as feasible,

Move back to Level A

Level B Focus

Interventions that address prerequisitefactors

If necessary

move to Level B

As soon as feasible,

move to Level B

Level C Focus

Interventions that address underlying factors

If necessary and for those with severe and chronic problems,

move to Level C

UCLA


Activity
Activity Includes

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UCLA Includes


UCLA Includes


Start Includes

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C. Understanding and Applying Includes

Intrinsic Motivation

UCLA


I don’t want to go to school. Includes

It’s too hard and the kids

don’t like me.

\ That’s too bad, \ but you have to go –

\ you’re the teacher!

/

UCLA


Intrinsic motivation is a fundamental concern Includes

in every classroom.

  • Understanding intrinsic motivation clarifies how essential

    it is to avoid processes that

    >limit options,

    >make students feel controlled and coerced, and

    >tend to focus mainly on “remedying” problems.

UCLA


  • Overreliance on extrinsic motivation risks producing Includes

    avoidance reactions in the classroom and to school.

    This can reduce opportunities for positive learning and for

    development of positive attitudes.

  • Over time, the result is that too many students

    disengage from classroom learning (and misbehave).

  • Practices for preventing disengagement and efforts to re-engage disconnected students (families, staff) require minimizing conditions that negatively affect intrinsic motivation and maximizing those that enhance it.

UCLA



If the equation stumped you, don't be surprised Includes .

The main introduction to motivational thinking that many people have been given in the past involves some form of reinforcement theory (which essentially deals with extrinsic motivation).

Thus, all this may be new to you, even though

motivational theorists have been wrestling with it for a long time, and intuitively, you probably understand much of what they are talking about.

UCLA


Translation: Includes

Expectancy times value

equals motivation

UCLA


• “E” represents an individual's Includes expectations about outcome (in school this often means expectations of success or failure).

• “V” represents valuing, with valuing influenced by both what is valued intrinsically and extrinsically.

Thus, in a general sense, motivation can be thought of in terms of expectancy times valuing.

UCLA


Applying the paradigm: Includes

Do the math.

E x V =

0 x 1.0 =

What are the implications?

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Within some limits Includes

(which we need not discuss here),

low expectations(E) and high valuing (V)

produce relatively weak motivation.

I know I won’t be able to do it.

UCLA


Now, what about this? Includes

E x V =

1.0 x 0 =

What are the implications?

UCLA


High expectations paired with low valuing Includes

also yield low approach motivation.

Thus, the oft-cited remedial strategy of

guaranteeing success by designing tasks to be

very easy is not as simple a recipe as it sounds.

UCLA


. Includes

Indeed, the approach is likely to fail if the

outcome is not valued or if the tasks are

experienced as too boring or if doing them is

seen as too embarrassing.

In such cases, a strong negative value is

attached to the activities, and this contributes

to avoidance motivation.

It’s not worth doing!

UCLA


Two common reasons people give for not bothering to learn something are

“It's not worth it"

"I know I won't be able to do it."

UCLA


Discussion of valuing and expectations emphasizes that something are

motivation is not something that can be determined solely by forces outside the individual.

UCLA


Any of us can plan activities and outcomes we think will enhance engagement (and learning)

But …

how the activities and outcomes are experienced

determines whether they are pursued (or avoided) with a little or a lot of effort and ability.


Understanding that an individual's enhance engagement (and learning)

perceptions can affect motivation

has led researchers to important findings

About some undesired effects resulting

from over-reliance on extrinsics.

UCLA


Appreciating Intrinsic Motivation enhance engagement (and learning)

Think in terms of

Maximizingfeelings of

>>Self-determination

>>Competency

>>Connectedness to others

UCLA


Think in terms of enhance engagement (and learning)

Minimizing threats to feelings of:

>>Self-determination

>>Competency

>>Connectedness to others

UCLA


In particular: enhance engagement (and learning)

minimize

• strategies designed only for social control

and

maximize

• options

• choice

• involvement in decision making

UCLA


Some Guidelines for Strategies that Capture enhance engagement (and learning)

An Understanding of Intrinsic Motivation

• minimize coercive social control interactions

• maximize students’ desire and ability to share their

perceptions readily (to enter into dialogues with

the adults at school)

• emphasize real life interests and needs

• stress real options and choices and a meaningful

role in decision making

• provide enrichment opportunities (and be sure not

to withhold them as punishment)

• provide a continuum of structure

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About Psychological Reactance and Misbehavior enhance engagement (and learning)

It is particularly important to minimize the heavy emphasis on social control

and coercive procedures!!!!

UCLA



Social control and coercion lead most of us to many for me to break! react overtly or covertly

You can’t do that …

You must do this …

Oh, you think so!

This is called

Psychological Reactance.

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» many for me to break! When people perceive their freedom is threatened,

they experience psychological reactance, which

motivates them to act in ways that can restore the

threatened sense of freedom.

» With prolonged denial of freedom, reactance

diminishes and people become amotivated –

feeling helpless and ineffective.

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About School Engagement many for me to break!

& Re-engagement

A growing research literature is

addressing these matters.

UCLA


GOSH MS. THOMPSON, I WAS READY TO many for me to break!

LEARN MATH YESTERDAY. TODAY I’M READY

TO LEARN TO READ.


Engagement many for me to break! is defined in

three ways

in the research literature:*

*From: “School Engagement: Potential of the Concept, State of the Evidence” (2004) by J. Fredricks, P. Blumenfeld, & A. Paris. Review of Educational Research, 74, 59-109.

UCLA


Behavioral engagement many for me to break!

Draws on the idea of participation;

it includes involvement in academic and social or extracurricular activities and is considered crucial for achieving positive academic outcomes and preventing dropping out.

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Emotional engagement many for me to break!

Encompasses positive and negative reactions to teachers, classmates, academics, and school

… is presumed to create ties to an institution and influence willingness to do the work.

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Cognitive engagement many for me to break!

Draws on the idea of investment;

it incorporates thoughtfulness and willingness to exert the effort necessary to comprehend complex ideas and master difficult skills.

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Activity many for me to break!

(1) Discuss what factors seem related

to students who become disengaged from school learning.

(2) List out ways to help prevent such

disengagement.

.


Working with many for me to break!

Disengaged Students

Four general strategies

See Handout for this and some references for learning more about all this.

UCLA


I suspect that many children many for me to break!

would learn arithmetic,

and learn it better,

f it were illegal.

John Holt


Activity for the future at a school many for me to break!

Discuss which classroom and school practices seem to

(1) threaten feelings of

>competence

>self-determination

>relatedness to staff and peers

(2) enhance such feelings

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D. Pursuing Teaching as One Strategy in a Comprehensive System of

Student and Learning Supports

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Defining Learning Supports System of

Learning supports are the resources, strategies, and

practices that provide physical, social, emotional, and

intellectual supports to enable all pupils to have an

equal opportunity for success at school by directly

addressingbarriers to learning and teaching and

re-engaging disconnected students.

A comprehensive, multifaceted, and cohesive learning

supports system provides supportive interventions in

classrooms and school-wide and is fully integrated

with efforts to improve instruction and management

at a school.

UCLA


UCLA


A system of learning supports frames both an intervention continuum delineated arenas of content
A system of learning supports System of frames both an intervention continuum &delineated arenas of content

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Levels of Intervention Continuum System of —Interconnected Systems for

Meeting the Needs of All Students:

One key Facet of a Learning Supports Component

School Resources

(facilities, stakeholders,

programs, services)

Community Resources

(facilities, stakeholders,

programs, services)

Systems for Promoting

Healthy Development &

Preventing Problems

primary prevention – includes

universal interventions

(low end need/low cost

per individual programs)

See examples

See examples

Systems of Early Intervention

early-after-onset – includes

selective & indicated interventions

(moderate need, moderate

cost per individual)

Systems of Care

treatment/indicated

interventions for severe and

chronic problems

(High end need/high cost

per individual programs)

UCLA


Categories of System of Basic Content Arenasfor

Learning Supports Intervention

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Categories of System of Basic Content Arenasfor

Learning Supports Intervention

Classroom-Based

Approaches to

Enable Learning

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Categories of System of Basic Content Arenasfor

Learning Supports Intervention

Classroom-Based

Approaches to

Enable Learning

Crisis/

Emergency

Assistance &

Prevention

UCLA


Categories of System of Basic Content Arenasfor

Learning Supports Intervention

Classroom-Based

Approaches to

Enable Learning

Crisis/

Emergency

Assistance &

Prevention

Support

for

Transitions

UCLA


Categories of System of Basic Content Arenasfor

Learning Supports Intervention

Classroom-Based

Approaches to

Enable Learning

Crisis/

Emergency

Assistance &

Prevention

Support

for

Transition

Home involvement &

Engagement

In Schooling

UCLA


Categories of System of Basic Content Arenasfor

Learning Supports Intervention

Classroom-Based

Approaches to

Enable Learning

Crisis/

Emergency

Assistance &

Prevention

Support

for

Transition

Community

Outreach

Home involvement &t

Engagement

In Schooling

UCLA


Categories of System of Basic Content Arenasfor Learning Supports Intervention

Classroom-Based

Approaches to

Enable Learning

Crisis/

Emergency

Assistance &

Prevention

Student &

Family

Assistance

Support

for

Transition

Community

Outreach

Home involvement &t

Engagement

In Schooling

UCLA


Categories of System of Basic Content Arenasfor

Learning Supports Intervention

Classroom-Based

Approaches to

Enable Learning

Crisis/

Emergency

Assistance &

Prevention

Student &

Family

Assistance

Infrastructure

>leadership

mechanisms

Support

for

Transition

Community

Outreach

Home involvement &t

Engagement

In Schooling

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Major examples of activity in each of the six basic content arenas
Major System of Examples of Activity inEach of the Six BasicContent Arenas

UCLA


Classroom-Based Enabling & System of

Re-engaging Students in Classroom Learning

FOCUS:

Classroom based efforts to enable learning

  • Prevent problems; intervene as soon as problems appear

  • Enhance intrinsic motivation for learning

  • Re-engage students who have become disengaged from classroom learning

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  • Classroom-Based Enabling (cont.) System of

  • EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES

  • • Opening the classroom door to bring in available supports

  • • Redesigning classroom approaches to enhance teacher

  • capability to prevent and handle problems and reduce

  • need for out of class referrals

  • • Enhancing and personalizing professional development

  • • Curricular enrichment and adjunct programs

  • • Classroom and school-wide approaches used to create

  • and maintain a caring and supportive climate

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Crisis Assistance and Prevention System of

  • FOCUS

  • School-wide and classroom-based efforts for

    • >responding to crises

    • >minimizing the impact of crises

    • >preventing crises

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Crisis Assistance and Prevention System of

EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES

•Ensuring immediate assistance in emergencies so

students can resume learning

•Providing Follow up care as necessary

• Forming a school-focused Crisis Team to formulate

a response plan and take leadership for developing

prevention programs

• Mobilizing staff, students, and families to anticipate

response plans and recovery efforts

• Creating a caring and safe learning environment

•Working with neighborhood schools and community to

integrate planning for response and prevention

UCLA


  • Support for Transitions System of

  • FOCUS

  • School-wide and classroom-based efforts to

    • >enhance acceptance and successful transitions

    • >prevent transition problems

    • >use transition periods to reduce alienation

    • >use transition periods to increase positive

    • attitudes/motivation toward school and learning

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Support for Transitions System of

EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES

• Welcoming & social support programs for newcomers

• Daily transition programs (e.g., before/afterschool, lunch)

• Articulation programs

• Summer or intersession programs

• School-to-career/higher education

• Broad involvement of stakeholders in planning for transitions

UCLA


  • Home Involvement in Schooling System of

  • FOCUS

  • School-wide & classroom-based efforts to engage the home in

    • >strengthening the home situation

    • >enhancing problem solving capabilities

    • >supporting student development and learning

    • >strengthening school and community

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  • EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES

  • • Addressing specific support and learning needs of family

  • • Improving mechanisms for communication & connecting

  • school and home

  • • Involving homes in student decision making

  • • Enhancing home support for learning and development

  • • Recruiting families to strengthen school and community

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Community Outreach for Involvement System of

and Support (including Volunteers)

FOCUS

Building linkages and collaborations to strengthen

students, schools, families, and neighborhoods

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Community Outreach for Involvement System of

and Support (including Volunteers)

EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES

• Planning and Implementing Outreach to Recruit a Wide

Range of Community Resources

• Systems to Recruit, Screen, Prepare, and Maintain

Community Resource Involvement

• Reaching out to Students and Families Who Don't Come

to School Regularly – Including Truants and Dropouts

• Connecting School and Community Efforts to Promote

Child and Youth Development and a Sense of Community

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From Kretzmann & McKnight -- System of Communities have many resources!

Day care Center

Police

Faith-based Institutions

Banks

Higher Education Institutions

Senior Citizens

Local Residents

School

Library

Businesses

Artist & Cultural Institutions

Restaurants

Media

Health & Social Services Agencies

Community Based Orgs.; Civic Assn.

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Student and Family Assistance System of

FOCUS

Specialized assistance provided through personalized health and social service programs

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Student and Family Assistance – System of Examples

  • • Providing support as soon as a need is recognized and

  • doing so in the least disruptive ways

  • • Referral interventions for students & families with problems

  • • Enhancing access to direct interventions for health, mental

  • health, and economic assistance

  • • Care monitoring, management, information sharing, and

  • follow-up assessment to coordinate individual

  • interventions and check whether referrals and services

  • are adequate and effective

  • • Mechanisms for resource coordination and integration to

  • avoid duplication, fill gaps, garner economies of scale,

  • and enhance effectiveness

  • •Enhancing stakeholder awareness of programs and services

UCLA


For more specific examples and mapping and analysis self study surveys for each arena, see the Center’s online resource aid:

Resource mapping and management to address barriers to learning:

An intervention for systemic change

http://smhp.psych.ucla.edu/pdfdocs/resourcemapping/resourcemappingandmanagement.pdf

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Combined Continuum and Content Arenas study surveys for each arena, see the Center’s online resource aid:

Levels of Intervention

Systems for Promoting Healthy Development & Preventing Problems

Systems for Early Intervention (Early after problem onset

Systems of Care

Classroom-Focused

Enabling

Crisis/ Emergency

Assistance & Prevention

Support for transitions

Content

Arenas

Home

Involvement in Schooling

Community

Outreach/

Volunteers

Student & Family Assistance

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Activity: Mapping & Analyzing Learning Supports


The framework is meant to guide development of study surveys for each arena, see the Center’s online resource aid:

a comprehensive system of learning supports as

a primary and essential component of school

improvement.

Reminder:

Such an enabling component is meant to:

(1) address interfering factors

and

(2) re- engage students in classroom instruction

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What the Two Component Model Does to Teachers study surveys for each arena, see the Center’s online resource aid:

Range of Learners

Instructional

Component

Classroom

Teaching

+

Enrichment

Activity

I = Motivationally

ready and able

Not very

motivated/

lacking

prerequisite

II = skills/

different rates

& styles/

minor

vulnerabilities

III = Avoidant/

very deficient

in capabilities

No barriers

Desired

Outcomes

(High Expectations

& Accountability)

Barriers

To

Learning,

Development,

Teaching

(High Standards)

What’s Missing?

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An Enabling or Learning Supports Component to Address Barriers and Re-engage Students in Classroom Instruction

Range of Learners

Instructional

Component

Classroom

Teaching

+

Enrichment

Activity

I = Motivationally

ready and able

Not very

motivated/

lacking

prerequisite

II = skills/

different rates

& styles/

minor

vulnerabilities

III = Avoidant/

very deficient

in capabilities

No barriers

Desired

Outcomes

(High Expectations

& Accountability)

  • Enabling

  • Component

  • Addressing

  • Interfering

  • Factors

  • (2) Re-engaging

  • Students in

  • Classroom

  • Instruction

Barriers

To

Learning,

DevelopmentTeaching

(High Standards)

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Identifying Staff at a School Involved Barriers and Re-engage Students in Classroom Instruction

with Learning Supports*

  • Administrative Leader for

  • Learning Supports

  • School Psychologist

  • School Nurse

  • Pupil Services &

  • Attendance Counselor

  • Social Worker

  • Counselors

  • Dropout Prevention

  • Program Coordinator

  • Title I and Bilingual Coordinators

  • Resource and Special

  • Education Teachers

  • Other important resources:

  • School-based Crisis

  • Team Members

  • School Improvement

  • Program Planners

  • Community Resources

*Such a list should include a brief description of programs and servicesand times available


Working together to Develop the System: Barriers and Re-engage Students in Classroom Instruction

A Learning Support Leadership Team

What you probably have is

a Case-Oriented Team

(Focused on specific individuals

and discrete services)

What you also need is a

Leadership Team for Developing a Unified & Comprehensive System of Learning Supports

(Focused on all students and the resources,

programs, and systems to address barriers to

learning and promote healthy development)

  • Possibly called:

  • Learning Supports Leadership Team

  • Learning Supports Resource Team

  • Learning Supports Development Team

  • Learning Support Component Team

  • Sometimes called:

  • Child/Student Study Team

  • Student Success Team

  • Student Assistance Team

  • Teacher Assistance Team

  • IEP Team


A Case-Oriented Team Barriers and Re-engage Students in Classroom Instruction

A Resource-Oriented Team

  • EXAMPLES OF FUNCTIONS

  • aggregating data across students and

  • from teachers to analyze school

  • needs

  • mapping resources

  • analyzing resources

  • enhancing resources

  • program and system

  • planning/development

  • redeploying resources

  • coordinating-integrating resources

  • social "marketing"

  • EXAMPLES OF FUNCTIONS

  • triage

  • referral

  • case monitoring/management

  • case progress review

  • case reassessment


Enhancing a System of Learning Supports: Barriers and Re-engage Students in Classroom Instruction

Connecting Resources Across a Family of Schools,

a District, and Community-Wide

Learning

Supports

Leadership

Team

Learning

Supports

Leadership

Team

High

Schools

Learning

Supports

Leadership

Team

Learning

Supports

Leadership

Team

Learning

Supports

Leadership

Team

Learning

Supports

Leadership

Team

Middle

Schools

Learning

Supports

Leadership

Team

Learning

Supports

Leadership

Team

Learning

Supports

Leadeship

Team

Elementary

Schools

Learning

Supports

Leadership

Team

Learning

Supports

Leadership

Team

Learning

Supports

Leadership

Team

Learning Supports

Leadership Council

Learning Supports

Leadership Council

School District

Resources, Management,

& Governing Bodies

Community Resources,

Management, &

Governing Bodies


To Recap: Barriers and Re-engage Students in Classroom Instruction

Here are six steps we recommend to teachers concerned with enhancing equity of opportunity for students:

(1) Rethink assistance and support in the classroom

(2) Understand that positive classroom and schoolwide climate emerge from both good instruction and a potent approach to learning supports

(3) Aim at increasingly personalizing instruction and student and learning supports

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Work with colleagues, volunteers, and other stakeholders to Barriers and Re-engage Students in Classroom Instruction

(4) Ensure a continuum of interventions and use a sequential approach in assessing responses to intervention

(5) Extend ways to accommodate differences/disabilities

(6) Expand school improvement plans to include development of a comprehensive system of student and learning supports

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Write down one question and/or comment Barriers and Re-engage Students in Classroom Instruction

We will answer as many as we can

and take the rest away and send back

some response to the class.

And remember you can always contact our Center to access resources & TA.

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What the best and wisest parent wants Barriers and Re-engage Students in Classroom Instruction

for his [or her] own child, that must the community want for all of its children.

Any other ideal for our schools

is narrow and unlovely;

acted upon, it destroys our democracy.

John Dewey

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