The nazi state and terror
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The Nazi State and Terror: The Nazis used terror and repression to force Germans to follow Nazi ideas. Schutzstaffeln (“Guard Squadrons), known as the SS , originally started out as Hitler’s bodyguards. Leader of the SS was Heinrich Himmler .

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The nazi state and terror

  • The Nazi State and Terror:

  • The Nazis used terror and repression to force Germans to follow Nazi ideas.

  • Schutzstaffeln (“Guard Squadrons), known as the SS, originally started out as Hitler’s bodyguards.

  • Leader of the SS was Heinrich Himmler.

  • SS controlled secret police forces (Gestapo) and regular police.


The nazi state and terror

Himmler with Hitler and other Nazis,

c. 1925.


The nazi state and terror

  • SS tactics/beliefs:

  • Repression and murder, secret and criminal police, concentration camps.

  • In WW2 used execution squads and death camps.

  • Himmler’s chief goal of the SS was to further the Aryan master race.


The nazi state and terror

  • Economic Policies of Hitler:

  • Public works projects and money to private business to put people back to work.

  • Started a massive rearmament program in direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles.

  • Unemployment was 6 million in 1932, was less than 500,000 in 1937.


The nazi state and terror

  • Mass Demonstrations/Spectacles:

  • Held all over Germany to promote Hitler and the Nazis.

  • Most famous were the Nuremburg Rallies held every September.


The nazi state and terror

  • Organizations:

  • Churches, public education, and universities were brought under the control of the Nazis.

  • Nazi professional organizations were formed for civil servants, teachers, farmers, professionals, etc.


The nazi state and terror

  • The Hitler Youth:

  • Formed in 1926, all German males between 10-18 had to join.

  • Had to swear devotion and allegiance to the Nazis and Hitler.

  • Fostered military values and basic military training.

  • German girls had their own organization called the League of German Girls.


The nazi state and terror

“We are the joyous Hitler youth,We do not need any Christian virtueOur leader is our saviorThe Pope and Rabbi shall be goneWe want to be pagans once again.”

- Song sung by Hitler youth


The nazi state and terror

  • Women and Nazism:

  • Women were expected to be wives and mothers to promote the Aryan race.

  • Women were to refrain from jobs in heavy industry and careers such as university teaching, medicine, and law.

  • Women should pursue careers such as social work and nursing.


The nazi state and terror

  • Anti-Semitic (Jewish) Policies:

  • Hitler hated Jews – Historians disagree where this hatred started or came from.

  • One theory is that Hitler’s time in Vienna, Austria before WWI led to his hatred – rejection to art school, being homeless, inability to find steady work.

  • The Nazis blamed the Jews for the Treaty of Versailles, inflation of the early 1920’s, and the Great Depression. (Scapegoats)


The nazi state and terror

“...the personification of the devil as the symbol of all evil assumes the living shape of the Jew.”

“Here he stops at nothing, and in his vileness he becomes so gigantic that no one need be surprised if among our people the personification of the devil as the symbol of all evil assumes the living shape of the Jew.”

“If the international Jewish financiers . . . should again succeed in plunging the nations into a world war the result will be . . . the annihilation of the Jewish race throughout Europe.”


The nazi state and terror

  • Why persecute Jews:

  • A religious minority – very small % of the population of Germany. Easy to blame for Germany’s problems.

  • Jews heavily involved in banking, finance, money lending – belief was they took “advantage” of these occupations.

  • Most Jews were very well educated – college professors, doctors, lawyers, accountants, etc. – caused jealousy.


The nazi state and terror

  • Nuremberg Laws:

  • September 1935 – Laws that excluded Jews from German citizenship, forbade marriage between Jews and German citizens, excluded Jews from various occupations.


The nazi state and terror

One of the most important aspects of these laws was the establishment of a legal definition for Jew.

The Laws also outlined different levels of Jewish individuals, depending on the number of Jewish grandparents an individual had. In addition the Nuremberg Laws did the following:

  • Took away German citizenship from all full Jews.

  • Prohibited Jews from flying the German flag.

  • Prohibited Jews from employing Germans as domestic servants.

  • Prohibited sexual relations between Aryans and Jews.

  • Prohibited marriage between Aryans and Jews.


The nazi state and terror

  • Kristallnacht (Night of the shattered glass):

  • November 9, 1938 – A rampage by Nazis against Jews across Germany. (Caused by the murder of a German diplomat in France by a Jew)

  • Synagogues burned down, 7000 Jewish businesses destroyed, 100 Jews killed.

  • 30,000 Jewish males sent to concentration camps.


The nazi state and terror

  • Aftermath of Kristallnacht:

  • Jews barred from all public transportation and all public buildings.

  • Jews could not own, manage, or work in a retail store.

  • Jews had to clean up after Kristallnacht.

  • Jews were told by the SS to “emigrate from Germany.”


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