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PBA Front-End. Week 1. Communication. Why do we communicate…?. Communication. Pass information Persuation Coordination …?. Communication. Communication. Why do we make websites…?. Communication. The purpose of a website is to communicate!

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Communication
Communication

Why do we communicate…?


Communication1
Communication

  • Pass information

  • Persuation

  • Coordination

  • …?



Communication3
Communication

Why do we make websites…?


Communication4
Communication

  • The purpose of a website is to communicate!

  • The purpose of a website is (usually) not to demonstrate technical brilliance 

  • What can we do with this wonderful web programming technology…?

  • How can we implement this wonderful web design…?


Communication5
Communication

  • Specific purposes of communication can be as diverse for websites as for real life:

    • Pass information [READ THIS!]

    • Persuation [BUY THIS!]

    • Coordination [DO THIS!]

  • There are obvious overlaps…


Communication6
Communication

  • What is the specific purpose (with regards to communication) for a website for:

    • A political party (UK Labor Party)

    • An online bookstore (Amazon)

    • A web design tutorial (WebStyleGuide)

    • An aid organisation (Red Cross)

    • An online universe for kids (Club Penguin)

    • A social media (Facebook)


Communication7
Communication

  • How does communication work…?


Communication8
Communication

  • Computers are lucky!


Communication9
Communication

  • In the ideal world

    • The sender has a certain ”mental state” about some information

    • The sender communicates something about this information to the receiver

    • The receiver is now in the same ”mental state” about this information


Communication10
Communication

  • Humans don’t work like that…

What were you doing inside a closet…?

Oh John, listen, I’ve decided to come out of the closet!


Communication11
Communication

  • What hinders ”perfect communication”?

    • Language (verbal and non-verbal)

    • Noise (actual and ”semantic”)

    • Context (culture, background, assumptions,…)


Communication12
Communication

  • Many theories and frameworks for analysis of communication

  • One prominent theory/model: Social Constructionism

  • The Constructionist View: ”How you say something determines what the message is”

  • Cannot separate form and content


Communication13
Communication

Wassup, d4wgg..?


Communication14
Communication

How are you today, my dear friend of African-American ethniticity…?


Communication15
Communication

  • If we accept the Constructionist View, what are the consequences?

    • No absolute truths

    • No absolute messages

    • People – and groups of people – construct their own reality (consensus reality), so…

    • Always consider the point-of-view of the receiver of any information


Communication16
Communication

  • Consensus reality

    • Is Nike the best brand of sports shoes…or have enough people agreed that it is so?

    • Is Global Warming a scientific fact…or have enough people agreed that it is so?

    • Is Facebook the best website for social inter-action…or have enough people agreed that it is so?


Communication17
Communication

  • Cognitive bias

    • The tendency for people to make ”poor” decisions, based on a particular situation

    • Is this relevant when designing websites…?

    • Depending on your purpose – cognitive bias can be ”exploited”

    • Example: Red Cross (I would rather help ”this one child”, than all these anonymous thousands…)



Web development process
Web Development Process

Where do websites come from…?


Web development process1
Web Development Process

  • All websites start with an idea!

  • Wouldn’t it be great if people could find information about my company online…?

  • Wouldn’t it be great if people could buy our products online…?

  • Wouldn’t it be great to make a site so interes-ting that millions would visit it each day, and then earn millions on ads…?


Web development process2
Web Development Process

  • Wouldn’t it be great if people could buy our products online…?

Now you know enough, start working!!

…and the deadline is in three weeks, btw!


Web development process3
Web Development Process

  • Clearly, the idea itself is not enough

  • From idea follows purpose (mission)

  • Often close to the idea, but somewhat more specific

  • The website should enable people to buy a broad selection of our products online, at the same prices as in our physical stores


Web development process4
Web Development Process

Sales

Communication

Presentation

Informa-

tion


Web development process5
Web Development Process

  • Information:

    • ”Hello, world”

    • Basic information about company/organisation

    • Contact information

    • One-way communication

    • Very static, rarely updated

    • http://www.jens-m-jensen.dk


Web development process6
Web Development Process

  • Presentation

    • Information, plus:

    • Presentation of products/services

    • Search function

    • Still one-way communication

    • Needs more frequent updates (Changes in prices, new products, …)

    • How are updates handled (CMS, Service,…)?


Web development process7
Web Development Process

  • Communication

    • Presentation, plus

    • Possible to ask questions (and get answers)

    • FAQ, guides,…

    • Chat, e-mail, Twitter,…

    • Two-way communication

    • Users expectations rise (fast response to questions, etc.)


Web development process8
Web Development Process

  • Sales (web-shop)

    • Communication, plus

    • Online sales of products and services

    • Standard solutions exist (Templates, CMS)

    • Numerous examples


Web development process9
Web Development Process

Some websites will not fit this model!

Sales

Communication

Presentation

Informa-

tion

Useful model for initial work on establishing purpose


Web development process10
Web Development Process

  • Purpose established!

  • The website should make it easy for our customers to buy a broad selection of our products online, while having a positive user experience

  • Can be start designing now…?


Web development process11
Web Development Process

  • The website should make it easy for our customers to buy a broad selection of our products online, while having a positive user experience

  • …and one year later, how will you know if the website was a success…?


Web development process12
Web Development Process

  • The website should make it easy for our customers to buy a broad selection of our products online, while having a positive user experience

  • Subjective!!!


Web development process13
Web Development Process

  • The website should make it easy for our customers to buy a broad selection of our products online, while having a positive user experience

  • Try to define objective goals instead!


Web development process14
Web Development Process

  • ”Easy”

  • It must be possible for 80 % of the users to complete an online purchase within 90 seconds, when starting from the landing page of our website


Web development process15
Web Development Process

  • ”Broad selection”

  • At least 90 % of all the items in the company product catalog must be available for purchase online


Web development process16
Web Development Process

  • ”Positive user experience”

  • At least 80 % of the users participating in a user survey must give the item ”overall user experience” a rating of 7 or more on a scale from 0 to 10. At most 5 % must give the item a rating of 3 or less.


Web development process17
Web Development Process

  • Goals established, can we start working now?

  • Remember Social Constructionism

  • The Constructionist View: ”How you say something determines what the message is”

  • Who are we talking to…?


Web development process18
Web Development Process

Defining a Target Audience


Web development process19
Web Development Process

  • Purpose and target audience will often – but not always – be rather closely related

  • Ideally, everybody should like our website!

  • In practice, only certain specific groups will be appealed to by our product, message, form of expression, etc.

  • Who are they…?


Web development process20
Web Development Process

  • How can you characterise a certain Target Audience?

    • Geography

    • Demography

    • Psychography

    • Level of competence


Web development process21
Web Development Process

  • Geography

    • Local/regional/national/ international

    • Urban/suburban/rural

    • Climate

    • Workplace/home


Web development process22
Web Development Process

  • Demography

    • Age

    • Gender

    • Civil status (single, married,…)

    • Occupation

    • Education

    • Income level

    • Ethniticity


Web development process23
Web Development Process

  • Psychography

    • Interests

    • Behaviour

    • Beliefs

    • Values

    • Culture/Subculture


Web development process24
Web Development Process

  • Level of competence (with regards to Web usage)

    • Novice

    • Casual

    • Intermediate

    • Expert


Web development process25
Web Development Process

  • Why is this relevant – what can the practical consequences be?

  • Imagine these target audiences:

    • Children age 5-8

    • Senior citizens, age 60+

    • Adults (age 18-60), elementary education

  • What is the influence on our design decisions?



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