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Chemical Periodicity. History. Dmitri Mendeleev (1834 – 1907) Russian chemist Noticed regular (periodic) recurrence of chemical and physical properties after arranging by increasing atomic mass. Eventually led to grouping by similar properties side by side

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history
History
  • Dmitri Mendeleev (1834 – 1907)
    • Russian chemist
    • Noticed regular (periodic) recurrence of chemical and physical properties after arranging by increasing atomic mass.
      • Eventually led to grouping by similar properties side by side

Predicted properties of then unknown elements with amazing accuracy.

  • Henry Mosely(1887 – 1915)
    • British physicist
    • Identified atomic number (nuclear charge) of the atoms of elements
      • Arranged periodic table by atomic number

Current arrangement of periodic table

the periodic table
The Periodic Table
  • Periods – horizontal rows of the periodic table.
  • Groups – vertical columns of the periodic table.
  • Periodic Law – when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic pattern in their physical and chemical properties.
electron configuration periodicity
Electron Configuration/Periodicity
  • Noble gases
    • Outermost p and s sublevels are filled
  • Representative elements
    • Outermost p and s sublevels are only partially filled
    • Called the Group A elements
      • Alkali metals – group 1A
      • Alkaline earth metals – group 2A
      • Halogens – group 7A
  • Transition metals
    • Outermost s sublevel and the nearby d sublevel contains electrons
    • Called the group B elements
  • Inner transition metals
    • Outermost s sublevel and the nearby f sublevel generally contain electrons
atomic radius
Atomic Radius
  • = half the distance between the nuclei of two like atoms.
  • Atomic size generally increases as you move down a group.
  • Atomic size generally decreases as you move from left to right across a period.

Largest atoms are towards the bottom and to the left of the periodic table.

ionization energy
Ionization Energy
  • = The energy that is required to overcome the attraction of the nuclear charge and remove an electron from a gaseous atom.
  • Ionization energy decreases as you move down a group of the periodic table.
  • For the representative elements, ionization energy generally increases as you move from left to right across a period.
electronegativity
Electronegativity
  • = the tendency for the atoms of the element to attract electrons when they are chemically combined with another element.
  • Electronegativity increases for the representative elements as you move from left to right and generally decreases as you move down a group.
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