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Splash Screen. Chapter Introduction Section 1: Forces Shaping the Earth Section 2: Landforms and Water Resources Section 3: Climate Regions Section 4: Human-Environment Interaction Summary. Chapter Menu.

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Chapter menu

Chapter Introduction

Section 1:Forces Shaping the Earth

Section 2:Landforms and Water Resources

Section 3:Climate Regions

Section 4:Human-Environment Interaction

Summary

Chapter Menu


Chapter intro 1

PlaceThink about the characteristics of the area where you live. How does the land look? Is there a large body of water nearby? What is the climate like? Each place on the Earth is unique, with its own special characteristics. What kinds of geographic characteristics define the region where you live?

Chapter Intro 1


Chapter intro 2

Section 1: Forces Shaping the Earth

Physical processes shape the Earth’s surface.Forces from within and the actions of wind, water, and ice have shaped Earth’s surface.

Chapter Intro 2


Chapter intro 21

Section 2: Landforms and Water Resources

Geographic factors influence where people settle.Physical features determine where people live.

Chapter Intro 2


Chapter intro 22

Section 3: Climate Regions

Geographers organize the Earth into regions that share common characteristics. Geographers use climate to define world regions.

Chapter Intro 2


Chapter intro 23

Section 4: Human-Environment Interaction

All living things are dependent upon one another and their surroundings for survival. Human actions greatly affect the natural world.

Chapter Intro 2




Section 1 key terms

Content Vocabulary

  • core

  • mantle

  • magma

  • crust

  • continent

  • plate tectonics

  • earthquake

  • fault

  • weathering

  • erosion

Section 1-Key Terms


Section 1 key terms1

Academic Vocabulary

  • release

  • constant

  • accumulate

Section 1-Key Terms


Section 1 polling question

A

B

Have you ever been in an earthquake?

A. Yes

B. No

Section 1-Polling Question


Section 1

Eyewitnesses to the 2004 tsunami in Indonesia saw animals running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.

Section 1


Section 11

Inside the Earth running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.

The Earth is made up of several layers that have different characteristics.

Section 1


Section 12

Inside the Earth running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.(cont.)

  • The Earth has layers like a melon or a baseball. The center is a dense solid core of hot iron mixed with other metals and rock.

  • The next layer, the outer core, is so hot that the metal has melted into a liquid.

  • Around the core is a layer of hot dense rock about 1,770 miles thick called the mantle.

Earth’s Layers

Section 1


Section 13

Inside the Earth running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.(cont.)

  • The area nearest the core is solid, but the rock in the outer mantle can be moved, shaped, and melted.

  • Melted rock from the mantle is called magma.

  • It flows to the surface during a volcanic eruption. Once it reaches the surface, magma is called lava.

Section 1


Section 14

Inside the Earth running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.(cont.)

  • A rocky shell forms the Earth’s surface and is called the crust.

  • This uppermost layer includes the ocean floors and seven land areas known as continents.

Section 1


Section 15

A running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.

B

C

D

Which of the following is NOT the name of a continent?

A.Europe

B.Africa

C.Central America

D.Australia

Section 1


Section 16

Shaping the Earth’s Surface running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.

Forces acting both inside and outside the Earth work to change the appearance of the Earth’s surface.

Section 1


Section 17

Shaping the Earth’s Surface running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.(cont.)

  • Because the Earth’s crust is in slow, constant motion, it changes over time.

  • Old mountains are worn down, while new mountains grow taller. The continents move as well.

  • By studying plate tectonics, you can understand how the continents were formed and why they move.

Tectonic Plate Boundaries

Section 1


Section 18

Shaping the Earth’s Surface running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.(cont.)

  • Each continent sits on one or more large land bases called plates.

  • As these plates move, the continents also move.

  • This movement is called continental drift. The drift can be as little 1 (2.54 cm) inch to as much as 7 inches (17.78 cm) per year.

Section 1


Section 19

Shaping the Earth’s Surface running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.(cont.)

  • Sometimes the plates pull away from each other, and sometimes they collide.

  • When plates collide, the land where the plates meet rises and forms mountains.

  • Collisions of continental and oceanic plates cause magma to erupt. When the magma hardens, the result is volcanic mountains.

Section 1


Section 110

Shaping the Earth’s Surface running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.(cont.)

  • Earthquakes are sudden and violent movements of the Earth’s crust.

  • They are common in areas such as the Pacific Ocean. Here the collision of ocean and continental plates makes the Earth’s crust unstable.

Section 1


Section 111

Shaping the Earth’s Surface running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.(cont.)

  • When plates move alongside each other, the movement makes cracks in the Earth’s crust called faults.

  • Movements along faults may happen in sudden bursts that cause earthquakes.

  • Another natural force that changes landforms is called weathering.

Section 1


Section 112

Shaping the Earth’s Surface running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.(cont.)

  • During this process, water and ice, chemicals, and even plants break rocks apart into smaller pieces.

  • Forces such as water, wind, and ice can move weathered rock in a process called erosion.

Section 1


Section 113

A running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.

B

C

D

What is the name of the region around the edge of the Pacific Ocean where many volcanoes and earthquakes occur?

A.Ring of Fire

B.Pangaea

C.San Andreas Fault

D.Plate tectonics

Section 1


Section 1 end
Section 1-End running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.


Section 2 main idea

Geographic factors influence where people settle. running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.

Section 2-Main Idea


Section 2 key terms

Content Vocabulary running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.

  • continental shelf

  • trench

  • groundwater

  • aquifer

  • water cycle

  • evaporation

  • condensation

  • precipitation

  • collection

Section 2-Key Terms


Section 2 key terms1

Academic Vocabulary running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.

  • occur

  • define

  • availability

Section 2-Key Terms


Section 2 polling question

A running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.

B

Do you think there are mountains underwater?

A. Yes

B. No

Section 2-Polling Question


Section 2

Between June and August 1993, an extraordinary amount of precipitation fell in the Midwestern United States. Meteorologists recorded a 200 to 350 percent increase from the normal rainfall. Floodwaters from the overflowing Mississippi and Missouri Rivers covered 400,000 square miles (1.04 million sq. km) and 15 million acres of farmland in nine states.

Section 2


Section 21

Types of Landforms precipitation fell in the Midwestern United States. Meteorologists recorded a 200 to 350 percent increase from the normal rainfall. Floodwaters from the overflowing Mississippi and Missouri Rivers covered 400,000 square miles (1.04 million sq. km) and 15 million acres of farmland in nine states.

Earth has a variety of landforms, and many of the landforms can be found both on the continents and the ocean floors.

Section 2


Section 22

Types of Landforms precipitation fell in the Midwestern United States. Meteorologists recorded a 200 to 350 percent increase from the normal rainfall. Floodwaters from the overflowing Mississippi and Missouri Rivers covered 400,000 square miles (1.04 million sq. km) and 15 million acres of farmland in nine states.(cont.)

  • Mountains, the highest landforms, range in height from a few thousand feet to nearly 30,000 feet (9144 m).

  • Hills are lower and more rounded than mountains.

  • Other landforms are valleys and flatlands.

  • A valley is lower than the land on either side and lies between mountains and hills.

Section 2


Section 23

Types of Landforms precipitation fell in the Midwestern United States. Meteorologists recorded a 200 to 350 percent increase from the normal rainfall. Floodwaters from the overflowing Mississippi and Missouri Rivers covered 400,000 square miles (1.04 million sq. km) and 15 million acres of farmland in nine states.(cont.)

  • Flatlands occur in one of two forms.

  • Plains are flat lowlands, typically found along coasts and lowland river valleys.

  • Plateaus are flatlands at higher elevations.

Section 2


Section 24

Types of Landforms precipitation fell in the Midwestern United States. Meteorologists recorded a 200 to 350 percent increase from the normal rainfall. Floodwaters from the overflowing Mississippi and Missouri Rivers covered 400,000 square miles (1.04 million sq. km) and 15 million acres of farmland in nine states.(cont.)

  • Geographers define some landforms by their relationship to bodies of water. Examples are an isthmus, a peninsula, and an island.

  • Off each coast of a continent lies a plateau called a continental shelfthat stretches for several miles underwater.

  • Mountains also are found underwater.

Section 2


Section 25

Types of Landforms precipitation fell in the Midwestern United States. Meteorologists recorded a 200 to 350 percent increase from the normal rainfall. Floodwaters from the overflowing Mississippi and Missouri Rivers covered 400,000 square miles (1.04 million sq. km) and 15 million acres of farmland in nine states.(cont.)

  • Tectonic activity makes deep cuts in the ocean floor called trenches.

  • A well-known trench is the Mariana Trench in the western Pacific Ocean.

  • Humans settle on all types of landforms.

  • Factors that help people decide where to live include climate and the availability of freshwater and food sources.

Section 2


Section 26

A precipitation fell in the Midwestern United States. Meteorologists recorded a 200 to 350 percent increase from the normal rainfall. Floodwaters from the overflowing Mississippi and Missouri Rivers covered 400,000 square miles (1.04 million sq. km) and 15 million acres of farmland in nine states.

B

C

D

Where is the Mariana Trench located?

A.Pacific Ocean

B.Atlantic Ocean

C.Indian Ocean

D.Arctic Ocean

Section 2


Section 27

The Water Planet precipitation fell in the Midwestern United States. Meteorologists recorded a 200 to 350 percent increase from the normal rainfall. Floodwaters from the overflowing Mississippi and Missouri Rivers covered 400,000 square miles (1.04 million sq. km) and 15 million acres of farmland in nine states.

Water covers much of the planet, but only some of this water is usable.

Section 2


Section 28

The Water Planet precipitation fell in the Midwestern United States. Meteorologists recorded a 200 to 350 percent increase from the normal rainfall. Floodwaters from the overflowing Mississippi and Missouri Rivers covered 400,000 square miles (1.04 million sq. km) and 15 million acres of farmland in nine states.(cont.)

  • About 70 percent of the Earth’s surface is covered with water.

  • Almost 97 percent of the Earth’s water is salt water.

  • Narrow bodies of water called straits or channels link seas, bays, and gulfs to the oceans.

Section 2


Section 29

The Water Planet precipitation fell in the Midwestern United States. Meteorologists recorded a 200 to 350 percent increase from the normal rainfall. Floodwaters from the overflowing Mississippi and Missouri Rivers covered 400,000 square miles (1.04 million sq. km) and 15 million acres of farmland in nine states.(cont.)

  • Only 3 percent of the water on Earth is freshwater.

  • Much of this freshwater is frozen in ice that covers polar regions and parts of mountains.

Section 2


Section 210

The Water Planet precipitation fell in the Midwestern United States. Meteorologists recorded a 200 to 350 percent increase from the normal rainfall. Floodwaters from the overflowing Mississippi and Missouri Rivers covered 400,000 square miles (1.04 million sq. km) and 15 million acres of farmland in nine states.(cont.)

  • Some freshwater is groundwater, which filters through the soil into the ground.

  • Groundwater often gathers in aquifers, or underground layers of rock through which water flows.

  • Lakes are large inland bodies of water.

Section 2


Section 211

The Water Planet precipitation fell in the Midwestern United States. Meteorologists recorded a 200 to 350 percent increase from the normal rainfall. Floodwaters from the overflowing Mississippi and Missouri Rivers covered 400,000 square miles (1.04 million sq. km) and 15 million acres of farmland in nine states.(cont.)

  • Rivers are long, flowing bodies of water.

  • Rivers begin at a source and end at a mouth.

  • The mouth is the place where a river empties into another body of water, such as an ocean or a lake.

Section 2


Section 212

The Water Planet precipitation fell in the Midwestern United States. Meteorologists recorded a 200 to 350 percent increase from the normal rainfall. Floodwaters from the overflowing Mississippi and Missouri Rivers covered 400,000 square miles (1.04 million sq. km) and 15 million acres of farmland in nine states.(cont.)

  • The largest rivers often have many tributaries, which are separate streams or rivers that feed into them.

  • Many rivers form deltas at their mouths by depositing soil.

  • Here a river breaks into many different streams flowing toward the sea.

Section 2


Section 213

The Water Planet precipitation fell in the Midwestern United States. Meteorologists recorded a 200 to 350 percent increase from the normal rainfall. Floodwaters from the overflowing Mississippi and Missouri Rivers covered 400,000 square miles (1.04 million sq. km) and 15 million acres of farmland in nine states.(cont.)

  • The water on Earth moves constantly in a process called the water cycle.

  • The sun drives the water cycle because it evaporates water, turning water from a liquid to a gas called water vapor.

  • Condensation occurs when cool temperatures change water vapor back to a liquid.

The Water Cycle

Section 2


Section 214

The Water Planet precipitation fell in the Midwestern United States. Meteorologists recorded a 200 to 350 percent increase from the normal rainfall. Floodwaters from the overflowing Mississippi and Missouri Rivers covered 400,000 square miles (1.04 million sq. km) and 15 million acres of farmland in nine states.(cont.)

  • When the liquid form falls to Earth, it is called precipitation.

  • The cycle is completed when collectiontakes place in rivers, lakes, and oceans.

Section 2


Section 215

A precipitation fell in the Midwestern United States. Meteorologists recorded a 200 to 350 percent increase from the normal rainfall. Floodwaters from the overflowing Mississippi and Missouri Rivers covered 400,000 square miles (1.04 million sq. km) and 15 million acres of farmland in nine states.

B

C

D

What percentage of the Earth’s water is salt water?

A.10

B.50

C.75

D.97

Section 2


Section 2 end
Section 2-End precipitation fell in the Midwestern United States. Meteorologists recorded a 200 to 350 percent increase from the normal rainfall. Floodwaters from the overflowing Mississippi and Missouri Rivers covered 400,000 square miles (1.04 million sq. km) and 15 million acres of farmland in nine states.


Section 3 main idea

Geographers organize the Earth into regions that share common characteristics.

Section 3-Main Idea


Section 3 key terms

Content Vocabulary common characteristics.

  • weather

  • climate

  • prevailing wind

  • current

  • El Niño

  • La Niña

  • local wind

  • rain shadow

  • climate zone

  • biome

  • urban climate

Section 3-Key Terms


Section 3 key terms1

Academic Vocabulary common characteristics.

  • distribute

  • alter

Section 3-Key Terms


Section 3 polling question

A common characteristics.

B

Is there a specific kind of climate you usually visit on vacation?

A. Yes

B. No

Section 3-Polling Question


Section 3

Tornadoes usually come one at a time, but now and then several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.

Section 3


Section 31

Effects on Climate several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.

Sun, wind, and water influence Earth’s climate.

Section 3


Section 32

Effects on Climate several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.(cont.)

  • Weatherrefers to the changes in temperature, wind direction and speed, and air moisture that take place over a short period of time.

  • Climate is the usual, predictable patterns of weather in an area over many years.

  • The sun does not heat the Earth evenly. The movement of air and water over the Earth helps to distribute heat more evenly around the planet.

Section 3


Section 33

Effects on Climate several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.(cont.)

  • Air in the Tropics, which is warmed by the sun, moves north and south toward the Poles of the Earth.

  • Colder air from the Poles moves toward the Equator. These movements of air are winds.

  • Major wind systems follow patterns that are similar over time and are called prevailing winds.

Prevailing Wind Patterns

Section 3


Section 34

Effects on Climate several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.(cont.)

  • The winds that blow from east to west between the Tropics and the Equator are called trade winds.

  • The westerlies, which blow over North America, move from west to east.

  • When moist, warm air rises suddenly and meets dry, cold air, major storms can develop.

Section 3


Section 35

Effects on Climate several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.(cont.)

  • These storms in the summer can include thunder and lightning, heavy rain, and, sometimes, tornadoes.

  • Tornadoes are violent, funnel-shaped windstorms with wind speeds up to 450 miles per hour.

  • Hurricanes are destructive storms that occur in the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. Typhoons occur in the western Pacific Ocean.

Section 3


Section 36

Effects on Climate several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.(cont.)

  • The steadily flowing streams of water in the world’s seas are called currents.

  • Like prevailing winds, currents follow patterns.

  • Every few years, changes in normal wind and water patterns in the Pacific Ocean alter weather patterns in many parts of the world.

World Ocean Currents

Section 3


Section 37

Effects on Climate several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.(cont.)

  • Two sets of conditions, El Niñoand La Niña, cause heavy rains in some parts of the world and droughts in other parts.

Section 3


Section 38

A several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.

B

C

D

On which ocean do typhoons occur?

A.Atlantic Ocean

B.Pacific Ocean

C.Arctic Ocean

D.Indian Ocean

Section 3


Section 39

Landforms and Climate several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.

Landforms, especially mountains, can affect winds, temperature, and rainfall.

Section 3


Section 310

Landforms and Climate several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.(cont.)

  • The types of landforms and their nearness to water influence climate.

  • Some landforms cause local winds, or wind patterns typical only in a small area.

  • Some local winds occur because land warms and cools more quickly than water does. Local winds also occur near tall mountains.

Section 3


Section 311

Landforms and Climate several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.(cont.)

  • Mountain peaks are cold and have snow even in the Tropics because high mountain air is thin and cannot hold heat.

  • Mountains have an effect—called a rain shadow—whereby they block rain from reaching interior regions.

Section 3


Section 312

A several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.

B

Do mountains have an effect on local winds?

A.Yes

B.No

Section 3


Section 313

Climate Zones several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.

The effects of wind, water, latitude, and landforms combine to create different climate zones.

Section 3


Section 314

Climate Zones several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.(cont.)

  • Many parts of the world, even though they are very distant from one another, have similar climates.

  • This is known as having the same climate zone, or similar patterns of temperature, precipitation, and vegetation.

  • Climate zones include biomes, or areas such as rain forest, desert, grassland, and tundra, in which particular kinds of plants and animals have adapted to particular climates.

Section 3


Section 315

Climate Zones several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.(cont.)

  • The five major climate zones are tropical, dry, midlatitude, high latitude, and highland.

  • All but the highland zone have several subcategories. For example, the tropical zone includes the subcategories of tropical rain forest and tropical savanna.

World Climate Zones

Section 3


Section 316

Climate Zones several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.(cont.)

  • Large cities show significant climate differences from surrounding areas in their zone.

  • These urban climates have higher temperatures due to paved streets and stone buildings that soak up and then release more of the sun’s heat energy than areas covered by plants.

Section 3


Section 317

Climate Zones several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.(cont.)

  • The different heat patterns in urban climates also cause winds to blow into cities from several directions instead of the prevailing direction experienced in rural areas.

  • It is possible that cities have more precipitation than rural areas, too.

Section 3


Section 318

A several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.

B

C

D

How many major climates zones are there?

A.4

B.5

C.7

D.10

Section 3


Section 3 end
Section 3-End several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.


Section 4 main idea

All living things are dependent upon one another and their surroundings for survival.

Section 4-Main Idea


Section 4 key terms

Content Vocabulary surroundings for survival.

  • smog

  • acid rain

  • greenhouse effect

  • crop rotation

  • deforestation

  • conservation

  • irrigation

  • pesticide

  • ecosystem

  • biodiversity

Section 4-Key Terms


Section 4 key terms1

Academic Vocabulary surroundings for survival.

  • layer

  • technique

Section 4-Key Terms


Section 4 polling question

A surroundings for survival.

B

Are you concerned about global warming?

A. Yes

B. No

Section 4-Polling Question


Section 4

Cattle ranchers in Oregon have a weed called “leafy spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.

Section 4


Section 41

The Atmosphere spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.

Human activity can have a negative impact on the air.

Section 4


Section 42

The Atmosphere spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.(cont.)

  • People burn oil, coal, or gas to make electricity, power factories, and move vehicles. These actions often cause air pollution.

  • Air pollution takes several forms.

  • Some polluting chemicals combine with ozone, a form of oxygen, to create smog. Smog is a thick haze of smoke and chemicals.

Section 4


Section 43

The Atmosphere spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.(cont.)

  • Chemicals combine with precipitation to form acid rain.

  • Acid rain kills fish, eats away at the surfaces of buildings, and destroys trees.

  • Another form of pollution is from human-made chemicals, particularly chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which destroy the ozone layer.

The Greenhouse Effect

Section 4


Section 44

A spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.

B

C

What is air pollution combined with precipitation called?

A.Smog

B.Acid rain

C.Greenhouse effect

Section 4


Section 45

The Lithosphere spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.

Some human activity damages our environment.

Section 4


Section 46

The Lithosphere spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.(cont.)

  • The lithosphere is another name for the Earth’s crust. It includes all the land above and below the oceans.

  • Rich topsoil is a vital part of the lithosphere.

  • Farming, logging, and mining, if not managed properly, can have a negative effect on topsoil.

Section 4


Section 47

The Lithosphere spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.(cont.)

  • Farmers can reduce the loss of topsoil.

  • One way is through contour plowing, or plowing along the curves of the land rather than in straight lines. This prevents the soil from washing away.

  • Another way is crop rotation, or changing what is planted from year to year.

  • A third way is to plant grasses in empty fields to hold the soil in place.

Section 4


Section 48

The Lithosphere spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.(cont.)

  • Deforestation, or cutting down forests without replanting them, is another way topsoil is lost.

  • When the tree roots are no longer there to hold the soil in place, wind and water can carry away the soil.

Section 4


Section 49

A spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.

B

C

D

Which has a negative effect on the lithosphere?

A.Farming

B.Logging

C.Mining

D.All of the above

Section 4


Section 410

The Hydrosphere and Biosphere spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.

Water pollution poses a threat to a vital and limited resource.

Section 4


Section 411

The Hydrosphere and Biosphere spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.(cont.)

  • The hydrosphere includes the Earth’s surface water and groundwater.

  • The amount of freshwater on Earth is limited, so people should practice conservation, or the careful use of a resource, to avoid wasting water.

Section 4


Section 412

The Hydrosphere and Biosphere spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.(cont.)

  • The water supply is harmed in several ways.

  • The water used in irrigation, a process in which water is collected and distributed to crops, is often lost through evaporation.

  • Pollution from industrial plants and pesticides is also harmful.

  • Pesticides are powerful chemicals that farmers use to kill crop-destroying insects.

Section 4


Section 413

The Hydrosphere and Biosphere spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.(cont.)

  • The biosphere includes all the plants and animals on Earth.

  • The biosphere is divided into ecosystems.

  • An ecosystem is a place shared by plants and animals that depend on one another for survival.

  • Changes to ecosystems can lead to shrinking biodiversity, or the variety of plants and animals living on the planet.

Section 4


Section 414

A spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.

B

C

D

What is the process used by farmers in which water is collected and distributed to crops?

A.Conservation

B.Irrigation

C.Pesticides

D.Biodiversity

Section 4


Section 4 end
Section 4-End spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.


Inside the Earth spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.

  • Earth has four layers: the inner and outer cores, the mantle, and the crust.

  • The continents are on large plates that move.

  • Plates colliding or pulling apart reshape the land.

VS 1


Shaping Landforms spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.

  • Water, chemicals, and plants break rock apart into smaller pieces.

  • Water, wind, and ice can cause erosion.

VS 2


Shaping Landforms spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.

  • Mountains, plateaus, valleys, and other landforms are found on land and under oceans.

  • Climate and availability of resources affect where humans settle.

VS 3


The Water Planet spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.

  • About 70 percent of the Earth’s surface is water.

  • In a process called the water cycle, water travels from the oceans to the air to the ground and back to the oceans.

VS 4


Climate spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.

  • Climate is the usual pattern of weather over a long period of time.

  • Sun, winds, ocean currents, landforms, and latitude affect climate.

  • Geographers divide the world into different climate zones.

VS 5


Humans and the Environment spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.

  • A delicate balance exists among the Earth’s atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.

  • Human actions, such as burning fuels and clearing rain forests, affect the environment.

VS 6


Vs end
VS-End spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.


Figure 1
Figure 1 spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.


Figure 2
Figure 2 spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.


Figure 3
Figure 3 spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.


Figure 4
Figure 4 spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.


Figure 5
Figure 5 spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.


Figure 6
Figure 6 spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.


Figure 7
Figure 7 spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.


Figure 8
Figure 8 spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.


Figure 9
Figure 9 spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.


Pp trans
PP Trans spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.


Dfs trans 1
DFS Trans 1 spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.


Dfs trans 2
DFS Trans 2 spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.


Dfs trans 3
DFS Trans 3 spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.


Dfs trans 4

Answers will vary, but should refer to the filtering or blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

DFS Trans 4


Vocab1

core blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

area at the center of the Earth, which includes a solid inner core and a hot liquid outer core

Vocab1


Vocab2

mantle blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

Earth’s thickest layer, found between the core and the crust

Vocab2


Vocab3

magma blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

hot melted rock inside the Earth that flows to the surface when a volcano erupts

Vocab3


Vocab4

crust blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

uppermost layer of the Earth

Vocab4


Vocab5

continent blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

large landmass that rises above an ocean

Vocab5


Vocab6

plate tectonics blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

scientific theory that explains how processes within the Earth form continents and cause their movement

Vocab6


Vocab7

earthquake blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

sudden and violent movement of the Earth’s crust that shakes the land and can cause great damage

Vocab7


Vocab8

fault blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

crack in the Earth’s crust where two tectonic plates meet; prone to earthquakes

Vocab8


Vocab9

weathering blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

process in which rock is broken into smaller pieces by water and ice, chemicals, or even plants

Vocab9


Vocab10

erosion blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

process by which weathered bits of rock are moved elsewhere by water, wind, or ice

Vocab10


Vocab11

release blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

to relieve pressure; to set free

Vocab11


Vocab12

constant blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

happening a lot or all the time

Vocab12


Vocab13

accumulate blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

to increase in amount

Vocab13


Vocab14

continental shelf blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

plateau off a continent that lies under the ocean and stretches for several miles

Vocab14


Vocab15

trench blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

deep cut in the ocean floor

Vocab15


Vocab16

groundwater blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

water that filters through the soil into the ground

Vocab16


Vocab17

aquifer blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

underground layer of rock through which water flows

Vocab17


Vocab18

water cycle blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

system in which water moves from the Earth to the air and back to the Earth

Vocab18


Vocab19

evaporation blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

part of the water cycle; process by which water changes from liquid to gas

Vocab19


Vocab20

condensation blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

part of the water cycle; process by which water changes from gas to liquid

Vocab20


Vocab21

precipitation blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

part of the water cycle; process by which water falls to the Earth as, for example, rain or snow

Vocab21


Vocab22

collection blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

part of the water cycle; process by which streams and rivers carry water that has fallen to the Earth back to the oceans

Vocab22


Vocab23

occur blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

to be found in

Vocab23


Vocab24

define blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

to describe or establish

Vocab24


Vocab25

availability blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

easy or possible to get or use

Vocab25


Vocab26

weather blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

changes in temperature, wind speed and direction, and air moisture that take place over a short period of time

Vocab26


Vocab27

climate blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

pattern of weather that takes place in an area over many years

Vocab27


Vocab28

prevailing wind blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

wind patterns that are similar over time

Vocab28


Vocab29

current blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

steadily flowing stream of water in the ocean

Vocab29


Vocab30

El blocking of ultraviolet radiation.Niño

weather phenomenon marked by very heavy rains in western South America, often causing flooding; reduced rainfall in Southern Asia, Australia, and Africa; and severe storms in North America (opposite of La Niña)

Vocab30


Vocab31

La blocking of ultraviolet radiation.Niña

weather phenomenon marked by unusually cool waters in the eastern Pacific and low amounts of rainfall there and heavier rains—and a greater chance of typhoons—in the western Pacific (opposite of El Niño)

Vocab31


Vocab32

local wind blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

wind pattern typical of a small area

Vocab32


Vocab33

rain shadow blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

effect of mountains that block rain from reaching interior regions

Vocab33


Vocab34

climate zone blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

areas that have similar patterns of temperature and rainfall and may have similar vegetation

Vocab34


Vocab35

biome blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

area that includes particular kinds of plants and animals adapted to conditions there

Vocab35


Vocab36

urban climate blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

weather patterns in cities, including higher temperatures and distinct wind patterns, as compared to nearby rural areas

Vocab36


Vocab37

distribute blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

to spread out

Vocab37


Vocab38

alter blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

to change

Vocab38


Vocab39

smog blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

thick haze of smoke and chemicals

Vocab39


Vocab40

acid rain blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

chemicals from air pollution that combine with precipitation

Vocab40


Vocab41

greenhouse effect blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

buildup of certain gases in the Earth’s atmosphere that, like a greenhouse, retain the sun’s warmth

Vocab41


Vocab42

crop rotation blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

changing what crops farmers plant in a field from year to year

Vocab42


Vocab43

deforestation blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

cutting down of forests without replanting new trees

Vocab43


Vocab44

conservation blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

careful use of resources to avoid wasting them

Vocab44


Vocab45

irrigation blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

process of collecting water and distributing it to crops

Vocab45


Vocab46

pesticide blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

powerful chemicals that kill crop-destroying insects

Vocab46


Vocab47

ecosystem blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

place shared by plants and animals that depend on one another for survival

Vocab47


Vocab48

biodiversity blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

variety of plants and animals living on the planet

Vocab48


Vocab49

layer blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

to form by adding layers

Vocab49


Vocab50

technique blocking of ultraviolet radiation.

a method of accomplishing something

Vocab50


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