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Splash Screen. Chapter Introduction Section 1: Forces Shaping the Earth Section 2: Landforms and Water Resources Section 3: Climate Regions Section 4: Human-Environment Interaction Summary. Chapter Menu.

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Presentation Transcript
chapter menu

Chapter Introduction

Section 1:Forces Shaping the Earth

Section 2:Landforms and Water Resources

Section 3:Climate Regions

Section 4:Human-Environment Interaction

Summary

Chapter Menu
chapter intro 1

PlaceThink about the characteristics of the area where you live. How does the land look? Is there a large body of water nearby? What is the climate like? Each place on the Earth is unique, with its own special characteristics. What kinds of geographic characteristics define the region where you live?

Chapter Intro 1
chapter intro 2

Section 1: Forces Shaping the Earth

Physical processes shape the Earth’s surface.Forces from within and the actions of wind, water, and ice have shaped Earth’s surface.

Chapter Intro 2
chapter intro 21

Section 2: Landforms and Water Resources

Geographic factors influence where people settle.Physical features determine where people live.

Chapter Intro 2
chapter intro 22

Section 3: Climate Regions

Geographers organize the Earth into regions that share common characteristics. Geographers use climate to define world regions.

Chapter Intro 2
chapter intro 23

Section 4: Human-Environment Interaction

All living things are dependent upon one another and their surroundings for survival. Human actions greatly affect the natural world.

Chapter Intro 2
section 1 key terms

Content Vocabulary

  • core
  • mantle
  • magma
  • crust
  • continent
  • plate tectonics
  • earthquake
  • fault
  • weathering
  • erosion
Section 1-Key Terms
section 1 polling question
A

B

Have you ever been in an earthquake?

A. Yes

B. No

Section 1-Polling Question
section 1

Eyewitnesses to the 2004 tsunami in Indonesia saw animals running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee.

Section 1
section 11

Inside the Earth

The Earth is made up of several layers that have different characteristics.

Section 1
section 12

Inside the Earth (cont.)

  • The Earth has layers like a melon or a baseball. The center is a dense solid core of hot iron mixed with other metals and rock.
  • The next layer, the outer core, is so hot that the metal has melted into a liquid.
  • Around the core is a layer of hot dense rock about 1,770 miles thick called the mantle.

Earth’s Layers

Section 1
section 13

Inside the Earth (cont.)

  • The area nearest the core is solid, but the rock in the outer mantle can be moved, shaped, and melted.
  • Melted rock from the mantle is called magma.
  • It flows to the surface during a volcanic eruption. Once it reaches the surface, magma is called lava.
Section 1
section 14

Inside the Earth (cont.)

  • A rocky shell forms the Earth’s surface and is called the crust.
  • This uppermost layer includes the ocean floors and seven land areas known as continents.
Section 1
section 15
A

B

C

D

Which of the following is NOT the name of a continent?

A.Europe

B.Africa

C.Central America

D.Australia

Section 1
section 16

Shaping the Earth’s Surface

Forces acting both inside and outside the Earth work to change the appearance of the Earth’s surface.

Section 1
section 17

Shaping the Earth’s Surface (cont.)

  • Because the Earth’s crust is in slow, constant motion, it changes over time.
  • Old mountains are worn down, while new mountains grow taller. The continents move as well.
  • By studying plate tectonics, you can understand how the continents were formed and why they move.

Tectonic Plate Boundaries

Section 1
section 18

Shaping the Earth’s Surface (cont.)

  • Each continent sits on one or more large land bases called plates.
  • As these plates move, the continents also move.
  • This movement is called continental drift. The drift can be as little 1 (2.54 cm) inch to as much as 7 inches (17.78 cm) per year.
Section 1
section 19

Shaping the Earth’s Surface (cont.)

  • Sometimes the plates pull away from each other, and sometimes they collide.
  • When plates collide, the land where the plates meet rises and forms mountains.
  • Collisions of continental and oceanic plates cause magma to erupt. When the magma hardens, the result is volcanic mountains.
Section 1
section 110

Shaping the Earth’s Surface (cont.)

  • Earthquakes are sudden and violent movements of the Earth’s crust.
  • They are common in areas such as the Pacific Ocean. Here the collision of ocean and continental plates makes the Earth’s crust unstable.
Section 1
section 111

Shaping the Earth’s Surface (cont.)

  • When plates move alongside each other, the movement makes cracks in the Earth’s crust called faults.
  • Movements along faults may happen in sudden bursts that cause earthquakes.
  • Another natural force that changes landforms is called weathering.
Section 1
section 112

Shaping the Earth’s Surface (cont.)

  • During this process, water and ice, chemicals, and even plants break rocks apart into smaller pieces.
  • Forces such as water, wind, and ice can move weathered rock in a process called erosion.
Section 1
section 113
A

B

C

D

What is the name of the region around the edge of the Pacific Ocean where many volcanoes and earthquakes occur?

A.Ring of Fire

B.Pangaea

C.San Andreas Fault

D.Plate tectonics

Section 1
section 2 key terms

Content Vocabulary

  • continental shelf
  • trench
  • groundwater
  • aquifer
  • water cycle
  • evaporation
  • condensation
  • precipitation
  • collection
Section 2-Key Terms
section 2 polling question
A

B

Do you think there are mountains underwater?

A. Yes

B. No

Section 2-Polling Question
section 2

Between June and August 1993, an extraordinary amount of precipitation fell in the Midwestern United States. Meteorologists recorded a 200 to 350 percent increase from the normal rainfall. Floodwaters from the overflowing Mississippi and Missouri Rivers covered 400,000 square miles (1.04 million sq. km) and 15 million acres of farmland in nine states.

Section 2
section 21

Types of Landforms

Earth has a variety of landforms, and many of the landforms can be found both on the continents and the ocean floors.

Section 2
section 22

Types of Landforms(cont.)

  • Mountains, the highest landforms, range in height from a few thousand feet to nearly 30,000 feet (9144 m).
  • Hills are lower and more rounded than mountains.
  • Other landforms are valleys and flatlands.
  • A valley is lower than the land on either side and lies between mountains and hills.
Section 2
section 23

Types of Landforms(cont.)

  • Flatlands occur in one of two forms.
  • Plains are flat lowlands, typically found along coasts and lowland river valleys.
  • Plateaus are flatlands at higher elevations.
Section 2
section 24

Types of Landforms(cont.)

  • Geographers define some landforms by their relationship to bodies of water. Examples are an isthmus, a peninsula, and an island.
  • Off each coast of a continent lies a plateau called a continental shelfthat stretches for several miles underwater.
  • Mountains also are found underwater.
Section 2
section 25

Types of Landforms (cont.)

  • Tectonic activity makes deep cuts in the ocean floor called trenches.
  • A well-known trench is the Mariana Trench in the western Pacific Ocean.
  • Humans settle on all types of landforms.
  • Factors that help people decide where to live include climate and the availability of freshwater and food sources.
Section 2
section 26
A

B

C

D

Where is the Mariana Trench located?

A.Pacific Ocean

B.Atlantic Ocean

C.Indian Ocean

D.Arctic Ocean

Section 2
section 27

The Water Planet

Water covers much of the planet, but only some of this water is usable.

Section 2
section 28

The Water Planet (cont.)

  • About 70 percent of the Earth’s surface is covered with water.
  • Almost 97 percent of the Earth’s water is salt water.
  • Narrow bodies of water called straits or channels link seas, bays, and gulfs to the oceans.
Section 2
section 29

The Water Planet (cont.)

  • Only 3 percent of the water on Earth is freshwater.
  • Much of this freshwater is frozen in ice that covers polar regions and parts of mountains.
Section 2
section 210

The Water Planet (cont.)

  • Some freshwater is groundwater, which filters through the soil into the ground.
  • Groundwater often gathers in aquifers, or underground layers of rock through which water flows.
  • Lakes are large inland bodies of water.
Section 2
section 211

The Water Planet (cont.)

  • Rivers are long, flowing bodies of water.
  • Rivers begin at a source and end at a mouth.
  • The mouth is the place where a river empties into another body of water, such as an ocean or a lake.
Section 2
section 212

The Water Planet (cont.)

  • The largest rivers often have many tributaries, which are separate streams or rivers that feed into them.
  • Many rivers form deltas at their mouths by depositing soil.
  • Here a river breaks into many different streams flowing toward the sea.
Section 2
section 213

The Water Planet (cont.)

  • The water on Earth moves constantly in a process called the water cycle.
  • The sun drives the water cycle because it evaporates water, turning water from a liquid to a gas called water vapor.
  • Condensation occurs when cool temperatures change water vapor back to a liquid.

The Water Cycle

Section 2
section 214

The Water Planet (cont.)

  • When the liquid form falls to Earth, it is called precipitation.
  • The cycle is completed when collectiontakes place in rivers, lakes, and oceans.
Section 2
section 215
A

B

C

D

What percentage of the Earth’s water is salt water?

A.10

B.50

C.75

D.97

Section 2
section 3 key terms

Content Vocabulary

  • weather
  • climate
  • prevailing wind
  • current
  • El Niño
  • La Niña
  • local wind
  • rain shadow
  • climate zone
  • biome
  • urban climate
Section 3-Key Terms
section 3 polling question
A

B

Is there a specific kind of climate you usually visit on vacation?

A. Yes

B. No

Section 3-Polling Question
section 3

Tornadoes usually come one at a time, but now and then several come at once. What is now known as the Super Outbreak occurred in April 1974. In a 16-hour period, scientists counted 148 tornadoes in 13 Midwestern and Southern states. Five large tornadoes were on the ground at the same time.

Section 3
section 31

Effects on Climate

Sun, wind, and water influence Earth’s climate.

Section 3
section 32

Effects on Climate (cont.)

  • Weatherrefers to the changes in temperature, wind direction and speed, and air moisture that take place over a short period of time.
  • Climate is the usual, predictable patterns of weather in an area over many years.
  • The sun does not heat the Earth evenly. The movement of air and water over the Earth helps to distribute heat more evenly around the planet.
Section 3
section 33

Effects on Climate (cont.)

  • Air in the Tropics, which is warmed by the sun, moves north and south toward the Poles of the Earth.
  • Colder air from the Poles moves toward the Equator. These movements of air are winds.
  • Major wind systems follow patterns that are similar over time and are called prevailing winds.

Prevailing Wind Patterns

Section 3
section 34

Effects on Climate (cont.)

  • The winds that blow from east to west between the Tropics and the Equator are called trade winds.
  • The westerlies, which blow over North America, move from west to east.
  • When moist, warm air rises suddenly and meets dry, cold air, major storms can develop.
Section 3
section 35

Effects on Climate (cont.)

  • These storms in the summer can include thunder and lightning, heavy rain, and, sometimes, tornadoes.
  • Tornadoes are violent, funnel-shaped windstorms with wind speeds up to 450 miles per hour.
  • Hurricanes are destructive storms that occur in the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. Typhoons occur in the western Pacific Ocean.
Section 3
section 36

Effects on Climate (cont.)

  • The steadily flowing streams of water in the world’s seas are called currents.
  • Like prevailing winds, currents follow patterns.
  • Every few years, changes in normal wind and water patterns in the Pacific Ocean alter weather patterns in many parts of the world.

World Ocean Currents

Section 3
section 37

Effects on Climate (cont.)

  • Two sets of conditions, El Niñoand La Niña, cause heavy rains in some parts of the world and droughts in other parts.
Section 3
section 38
A

B

C

D

On which ocean do typhoons occur?

A.Atlantic Ocean

B.Pacific Ocean

C.Arctic Ocean

D.Indian Ocean

Section 3
section 39

Landforms and Climate

Landforms, especially mountains, can affect winds, temperature, and rainfall.

Section 3
section 310

Landforms and Climate (cont.)

  • The types of landforms and their nearness to water influence climate.
  • Some landforms cause local winds, or wind patterns typical only in a small area.
  • Some local winds occur because land warms and cools more quickly than water does. Local winds also occur near tall mountains.
Section 3
section 311

Landforms and Climate (cont.)

  • Mountain peaks are cold and have snow even in the Tropics because high mountain air is thin and cannot hold heat.
  • Mountains have an effect—called a rain shadow—whereby they block rain from reaching interior regions.
Section 3
section 312
A

B

Do mountains have an effect on local winds?

A.Yes

B.No

Section 3
section 313

Climate Zones

The effects of wind, water, latitude, and landforms combine to create different climate zones.

Section 3
section 314

Climate Zones (cont.)

  • Many parts of the world, even though they are very distant from one another, have similar climates.
  • This is known as having the same climate zone, or similar patterns of temperature, precipitation, and vegetation.
  • Climate zones include biomes, or areas such as rain forest, desert, grassland, and tundra, in which particular kinds of plants and animals have adapted to particular climates.
Section 3
section 315

Climate Zones (cont.)

  • The five major climate zones are tropical, dry, midlatitude, high latitude, and highland.
  • All but the highland zone have several subcategories. For example, the tropical zone includes the subcategories of tropical rain forest and tropical savanna.

World Climate Zones

Section 3
section 316

Climate Zones (cont.)

  • Large cities show significant climate differences from surrounding areas in their zone.
  • These urban climates have higher temperatures due to paved streets and stone buildings that soak up and then release more of the sun’s heat energy than areas covered by plants.
Section 3
section 317

Climate Zones (cont.)

  • The different heat patterns in urban climates also cause winds to blow into cities from several directions instead of the prevailing direction experienced in rural areas.
  • It is possible that cities have more precipitation than rural areas, too.
Section 3
section 318
A

B

C

D

How many major climates zones are there?

A.4

B.5

C.7

D.10

Section 3
section 4 key terms

Content Vocabulary

  • smog
  • acid rain
  • greenhouse effect
  • crop rotation
  • deforestation
  • conservation
  • irrigation
  • pesticide
  • ecosystem
  • biodiversity
Section 4-Key Terms
section 4 polling question
A

B

Are you concerned about global warming?

A. Yes

B. No

Section 4-Polling Question
section 4

Cattle ranchers in Oregon have a weed called “leafy spurge” that harms their ranchlands. Instead of spraying the weed with chemicals called herbicides, however, the ranchers have begun renting goats to eat the weeds. This natural alternative looks promising. The ranchers get rid of the weeds, no poisons are used, the goat owners have a new source of income, and the goats are happy.

Section 4
section 41

The Atmosphere

Human activity can have a negative impact on the air.

Section 4
section 42

The Atmosphere (cont.)

  • People burn oil, coal, or gas to make electricity, power factories, and move vehicles. These actions often cause air pollution.
  • Air pollution takes several forms.
  • Some polluting chemicals combine with ozone, a form of oxygen, to create smog. Smog is a thick haze of smoke and chemicals.
Section 4
section 43

The Atmosphere (cont.)

  • Chemicals combine with precipitation to form acid rain.
  • Acid rain kills fish, eats away at the surfaces of buildings, and destroys trees.
  • Another form of pollution is from human-made chemicals, particularly chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which destroy the ozone layer.

The Greenhouse Effect

Section 4
section 44
A

B

C

What is air pollution combined with precipitation called?

A.Smog

B.Acid rain

C.Greenhouse effect

Section 4
section 45

The Lithosphere

Some human activity damages our environment.

Section 4
section 46

The Lithosphere (cont.)

  • The lithosphere is another name for the Earth’s crust. It includes all the land above and below the oceans.
  • Rich topsoil is a vital part of the lithosphere.
  • Farming, logging, and mining, if not managed properly, can have a negative effect on topsoil.
Section 4
section 47

The Lithosphere (cont.)

  • Farmers can reduce the loss of topsoil.
  • One way is through contour plowing, or plowing along the curves of the land rather than in straight lines. This prevents the soil from washing away.
  • Another way is crop rotation, or changing what is planted from year to year.
  • A third way is to plant grasses in empty fields to hold the soil in place.
Section 4
section 48

The Lithosphere (cont.)

  • Deforestation, or cutting down forests without replanting them, is another way topsoil is lost.
  • When the tree roots are no longer there to hold the soil in place, wind and water can carry away the soil.
Section 4
section 49
A

B

C

D

Which has a negative effect on the lithosphere?

A.Farming

B.Logging

C.Mining

D.All of the above

Section 4
section 410

The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

Water pollution poses a threat to a vital and limited resource.

Section 4
section 411

The Hydrosphere and Biosphere (cont.)

  • The hydrosphere includes the Earth’s surface water and groundwater.
  • The amount of freshwater on Earth is limited, so people should practice conservation, or the careful use of a resource, to avoid wasting water.
Section 4
section 412

The Hydrosphere and Biosphere (cont.)

  • The water supply is harmed in several ways.
  • The water used in irrigation, a process in which water is collected and distributed to crops, is often lost through evaporation.
  • Pollution from industrial plants and pesticides is also harmful.
  • Pesticides are powerful chemicals that farmers use to kill crop-destroying insects.
Section 4
section 413

The Hydrosphere and Biosphere (cont.)

  • The biosphere includes all the plants and animals on Earth.
  • The biosphere is divided into ecosystems.
  • An ecosystem is a place shared by plants and animals that depend on one another for survival.
  • Changes to ecosystems can lead to shrinking biodiversity, or the variety of plants and animals living on the planet.
Section 4
section 414
A

B

C

D

What is the process used by farmers in which water is collected and distributed to crops?

A.Conservation

B.Irrigation

C.Pesticides

D.Biodiversity

Section 4
slide93

Inside the Earth

  • Earth has four layers: the inner and outer cores, the mantle, and the crust.
  • The continents are on large plates that move.
  • Plates colliding or pulling apart reshape the land.
VS 1
slide94

Shaping Landforms

  • Water, chemicals, and plants break rock apart into smaller pieces.
  • Water, wind, and ice can cause erosion.
VS 2
slide95

Shaping Landforms

  • Mountains, plateaus, valleys, and other landforms are found on land and under oceans.
  • Climate and availability of resources affect where humans settle.
VS 3
slide96

The Water Planet

  • About 70 percent of the Earth’s surface is water.
  • In a process called the water cycle, water travels from the oceans to the air to the ground and back to the oceans.
VS 4
slide97

Climate

  • Climate is the usual pattern of weather over a long period of time.
  • Sun, winds, ocean currents, landforms, and latitude affect climate.
  • Geographers divide the world into different climate zones.
VS 5
slide98

Humans and the Environment

  • A delicate balance exists among the Earth’s atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.
  • Human actions, such as burning fuels and clearing rain forests, affect the environment.
VS 6
vocab1

core

area at the center of the Earth, which includes a solid inner core and a hot liquid outer core

Vocab1
vocab2

mantle

Earth’s thickest layer, found between the core and the crust

Vocab2
vocab3

magma

hot melted rock inside the Earth that flows to the surface when a volcano erupts

Vocab3
vocab4

crust

uppermost layer of the Earth

Vocab4
vocab5

continent

large landmass that rises above an ocean

Vocab5
vocab6

plate tectonics

scientific theory that explains how processes within the Earth form continents and cause their movement

Vocab6
vocab7

earthquake

sudden and violent movement of the Earth’s crust that shakes the land and can cause great damage

Vocab7
vocab8

fault

crack in the Earth’s crust where two tectonic plates meet; prone to earthquakes

Vocab8
vocab9

weathering

process in which rock is broken into smaller pieces by water and ice, chemicals, or even plants

Vocab9
vocab10

erosion

process by which weathered bits of rock are moved elsewhere by water, wind, or ice

Vocab10
vocab11

release

to relieve pressure; to set free

Vocab11
vocab12

constant

happening a lot or all the time

Vocab12
vocab13

accumulate

to increase in amount

Vocab13
vocab14

continental shelf

plateau off a continent that lies under the ocean and stretches for several miles

Vocab14
vocab15

trench

deep cut in the ocean floor

Vocab15
vocab16

groundwater

water that filters through the soil into the ground

Vocab16
vocab17

aquifer

underground layer of rock through which water flows

Vocab17
vocab18

water cycle

system in which water moves from the Earth to the air and back to the Earth

Vocab18
vocab19

evaporation

part of the water cycle; process by which water changes from liquid to gas

Vocab19
vocab20

condensation

part of the water cycle; process by which water changes from gas to liquid

Vocab20
vocab21

precipitation

part of the water cycle; process by which water falls to the Earth as, for example, rain or snow

Vocab21
vocab22

collection

part of the water cycle; process by which streams and rivers carry water that has fallen to the Earth back to the oceans

Vocab22
vocab23

occur

to be found in

Vocab23
vocab24

define

to describe or establish

Vocab24
vocab25

availability

easy or possible to get or use

Vocab25
vocab26

weather

changes in temperature, wind speed and direction, and air moisture that take place over a short period of time

Vocab26
vocab27

climate

pattern of weather that takes place in an area over many years

Vocab27
vocab28

prevailing wind

wind patterns that are similar over time

Vocab28
vocab29

current

steadily flowing stream of water in the ocean

Vocab29
vocab30

El Niño

weather phenomenon marked by very heavy rains in western South America, often causing flooding; reduced rainfall in Southern Asia, Australia, and Africa; and severe storms in North America (opposite of La Niña)

Vocab30
vocab31

La Niña

weather phenomenon marked by unusually cool waters in the eastern Pacific and low amounts of rainfall there and heavier rains—and a greater chance of typhoons—in the western Pacific (opposite of El Niño)

Vocab31
vocab32

local wind

wind pattern typical of a small area

Vocab32
vocab33

rain shadow

effect of mountains that block rain from reaching interior regions

Vocab33
vocab34

climate zone

areas that have similar patterns of temperature and rainfall and may have similar vegetation

Vocab34
vocab35

biome

area that includes particular kinds of plants and animals adapted to conditions there

Vocab35
vocab36

urban climate

weather patterns in cities, including higher temperatures and distinct wind patterns, as compared to nearby rural areas

Vocab36
vocab37

distribute

to spread out

Vocab37
vocab38

alter

to change

Vocab38
vocab39

smog

thick haze of smoke and chemicals

Vocab39
vocab40

acid rain

chemicals from air pollution that combine with precipitation

Vocab40
vocab41

greenhouse effect

buildup of certain gases in the Earth’s atmosphere that, like a greenhouse, retain the sun’s warmth

Vocab41
vocab42

crop rotation

changing what crops farmers plant in a field from year to year

Vocab42
vocab43

deforestation

cutting down of forests without replanting new trees

Vocab43
vocab44

conservation

careful use of resources to avoid wasting them

Vocab44
vocab45

irrigation

process of collecting water and distributing it to crops

Vocab45
vocab46

pesticide

powerful chemicals that kill crop-destroying insects

Vocab46
vocab47

ecosystem

place shared by plants and animals that depend on one another for survival

Vocab47
vocab48

biodiversity

variety of plants and animals living on the planet

Vocab48
vocab49

layer

to form by adding layers

Vocab49
vocab50

technique

a method of accomplishing something

Vocab50
slide164

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