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Programming Versus Application. Abonyi-Tóth, Andor Szlávi, Péter – Zsakó, László L orand Eötvös University, Faculty of Informatics, Department of Teacher’s Training in Computer Science Budapest, Hungary [email protected] [email protected] , [email protected] Table of Contents.

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Abonyi-Tóth, Andor Szlávi, Péter – Zsakó, László

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Abonyi t th andor szl vi p ter zsak l szl

Programming VersusApplication

Abonyi-Tóth, Andor Szlávi, Péter – Zsakó, László

Lorand Eötvös University, Faculty of Informatics, Department of Teacher’s Training in Computer Science Budapest, Hungary

[email protected]@ludens.elte.hu, [email protected]


Table of contents

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2 The Delusions of Informatics Education

3 Why Do You Need Both?

4 Fields of Informatics

5 Informatics at School

6 Conclusion

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


1 introduction

1 Introduction

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


1 introduction1

1 Introduction

Some fundamental issues in teaching informatics:

  • Informatics as a school subject in some country: is there or not?

    our position: there be!

  • Which age groups are to learn it?

    our position: in each year of primary and secondary education!

  • The problem of programming and application; only one or both?

    hear soon!

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


1 introduction continuation

1 Introduction(continuation)

The questions to be studied in our presentation are

  • Why need to teaching programming (Pr) and/or application (App)?

  • What are the goals of Pr and App skills?

  • What contents should belong to Pr and App skills?

  • What knowledge and skills are in output at different ages?

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


2 the delusions of informatics education

2 The Delusions of Informatics Education

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


2 the delusions of informatics education1

2 The Delusions of Informatics Education

Informatics education == teaching uses only

Informatics = being able to use computers properly

Not part of Informatics:

  • the development of abilities

  • the improvement of problem solving skills

  • the practice of problem solving activities…

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


2 the delusions of informatics education2

2 The Delusions of Informatics Education

(continuation)

Informatics education == teaching uses only

In supporters’ opinion:

“only few students will become programmers  to teach Pr is unnecessary”

This is nonsence!

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


2 the delusions of informatics education3

2 The Delusions of Informatics Education

(continuation)

Informatics education == teaching uses only

This is nonsence!

Why?

  • Why do we teach mathematics: do we want everybody to become a mathematician?

  • If only a small number of students become a historian, why to teach history?

Our world is full of algorithms: wealways do algorithms in our everydaylife, daily work or while studying.

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


2 the delusions of informatics education4

2 The Delusions of Informatics Education

(continuation)

Informatics education = = teaching programming only

“There is no need for a new form of computer literacy, informatics does not change our everyday life…”

This is not true!

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


2 the delusions of informatics education5

2 The Delusions of Informatics Education

(continuation)

Informatics education = = teaching programming only

This not true!

Why?

It is a well-known fact:

beyond a certain extent of complexity

frontal recognition + problem solvingtechniques become difficult, the process ofacquisition slows down

it requiresan extent of abstraction skills andnotion recognition to understand the logicof the system (that can be developed muchslower alone than in a well-constructedlearning process).

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


3 why do you need both

3 Why Do You Need Both?

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


3 why do you need both1

3 Why Do You Need Both?

Solving App task

Only thosecan make good use ofthe opportunitiesof the new information society thatregularly use these tools.

They are fairly sophisticated

the stress is

  • not on their routine use but

  • on the knowledge of the opportunities they offer and their creative use.

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


3 why do you need both2

3 Why Do You Need Both?

(continuation)

Algorithmization, data modelling

In school as well as in your everyday lifeyou keep performing algorithms when

  • filling in data structures:

    • questionnaires,

    • forms,

  • designing

    • action sequences,

    • information-flow processes.

This worldcannot be fully understood by those whoare not aware of the basics of theseactions.

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


4 fields of informatics

4 Fields of Informatics

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


4 fields of informatics1

4 Fields of Informatics

Solving App tasks

This scope of knowledge emphasizescomputer application:

  • the point ofview of the problem

  • the question iswhether general programcan be used for problem solving or not(rather than the way how it can be used)

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


4 fields of informatics2

4 Fields of Informatics

(continuation)

Solving App tasks

Important areas:

  • word processing: compilation of textdocuments, publications intraditional and electronic form;

  • constructing graphic images andobjects: constructing and processingdiagrams, graphic figures, photos;

  • spread sheeting: arranging data in atable, making calculations;

  • database management: storing,arranging, grouping data, makingreports;

  • presentation: making presentations,electronic notice boards, billboards;

  • multimedia design: designing videoand audio files, animation.

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


4 fields of informatics3

4 Fields of Informatics

(continuation)

Algorithmization, data modelling

We learn to understand the world around us with the help of models.

Programmingcan be a useful way of

  • developing modelling ability and

  • making students think logically.

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


4 fields of informatics4

4 Fields of Informatics

(continuation)

Algorithmization, data modelling

Algorithmization  computer-assisted execution.

In general the person who created the algorithm perform it in his mindas well.

Teaching data structures and algorithms cannot be separated.

The aim of the application of the computer is to create output data from the input datawith the help of programs.

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


4 fields of informatics5

4 Fields of Informatics

(continuation)

Algorithmization, data modelling

The basis of computer-assisted problem solving is algorithm elaboration and not coding.

Teaching a programming language should not be the primary aim in studying programming.

The computer-assistedproblem solving as tool improvement,where the problem solving tool (theprogram) should be created.

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


5 informatics at school

5 Informatics at School

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


5 informatics at school1

5 Informatics at School

Solving App tasks – in Years 1 to 4

The main goal ismaking friends with computers.

  • playful programs and tasks

  • image and musicediting

  • stampingprograms(similar to children's real rubberstamps)

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


5 informatics at school2

5 Informatics at School

(continuation)

Solving App tasks – in Years 1 to 4

Drawing= fusing simple line drawings and patches (colours and textures).

Music= playing, editing/writing then music

Music+drawing+sometext+animation= simple multimedia

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


5 informatics at school3

5 Informatics at School

(continuation)

Algorithmization, data modelling– in Years 1 to 4

Pupils must be able

  • to formulate algorithms and

  • to execute simple everyday algorithms(morning routine, crossing a street etc.)

realising

  • data types (numbers, text, others),

  • the directions,

  • the measurability of distances,

  • that the data can be sorted.

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


5 informatics at school4

5 Informatics at School

(continuation)

Solving App tasks – in Years 5 to 6

The scope of application possibilities widens.

Mainly drawings: figures accompanied with a little text;for example:

  • invitation cards to birthday parties …,

  • greeting cards,

  • school and class badges,

  • various kinds of posters etc.

Compared to the previous age group:

a bit more text in the documents created.

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


5 informatics at school5

5 Informatics at School

(continuation)

Algorithmization, data modelling– in Years 5 to 6

Pupils must be able

  • to formulate precise algorithms and

  • to design simple everyday algorithms(morning routine, crossing a street etc.).

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


5 informatics at school6

5 Informatics at School

(continuation)

Algorithmization, data modelling– in Years 5 to 6

They should realise that you use threetypes of elements when constructing analgorithm:

  • each of the atomic steps must beexecuted (in the given order),

  • one of the atomic steps should bechosen and then executed,

  • the atomic step should be executediteratively.

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


5 informatics at school7

5 Informatics at School

(continuation)

Solving App tasks – in Years 7 to 8

The philosophy does not differ greatly from those descripted above.(less teachers’ guidance)

Tasks related to their school and home life like creating, printing, storing and correcting documents and tables(in accordance with the interests of this age group).

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


5 informatics at school8

aesthetics

typography

5 Informatics at School

(continuation)

Solving App tasks – in Years 7 to 8

The stress is laid upon text documents +

  • figures,

  • tables.

Tasks: preparing

  • a schoolnewsletter,

  • schedules of a summer camp,

  • timetables,

  • business cards,

  • invitations toschool competitions, their schedule andresults etc.

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


5 informatics at school9

5 Informatics at School

(continuation)

Solving App tasks – in Years 7 to 8

Table – within a text file…

Searching – in public computer information systems (task banks, cultural programmes etc.)…

Electronic noticeboard /slide show – relying on text and graphic documents…

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


5 informatics at school10

data modelling

algorithmization

5 Informatics at School

(continuation)

Algorithmization, data modelling– in Years 7 to 8

Pupils must be abletell apart

  • scalar (number, character etc.) and

  • compound data (array, table, text etc.)

They must be able to

  • consciously apply the principle ofrefinement step by step.

  • to independently formulate, name,parameter sub-algorithms and use theminconstructing algorithms.

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


5 informatics at school11

5 Informatics at School

(continuation)

Solving App tasks – in Years 9 to 10

Playfullness is diminishinggiving way to “reality”

Majority of the written materials are texts (letters, essays etc.)

Tables and diagrams(based on them): computation and plotting of statistic data and evaluation of (physical and chemical) measurements (with spreadsheets)…

  • Databasesrelated to everyday life (telephone directoryetc.)

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


5 informatics at school12

5 Informatics at School

(continuation)

Algorithmization, data modelling– in Years 9 to 10

Understanding and systematic use of

  • atomic and compounddata, files…

  • task types…

  • the tools ofalgorithmic abstraction (procedures and functions)

    Students must understand that

    aprogram is a product…

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


5 informatics at school13

5 Informatics at School

(continuation)

Solving App tasks – in Years 11 to 12

Application programs that best suit the profile of the given education institution.

Tasks: drawing, image editing and image processing (at a higher level, relying on the more serious mathematical knowledge)

Makingpresentations

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


5 informatics at school14

5 Informatics at School

(continuation)

Algorithmization, data modelling– in Years 11 to 12

Atomic and compound data, filemanagement, relational data structures(at a higher level).

Basic algorithmsfor task types.

Recursion in the world of tasks,data and algorithms.

Algorithm designingtechniques.

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


6 conclusion

6 Conclusion

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


6 conclusion1

6 Conclusion

We surveyed the fields of application based ICT and programming instruction inparallel…

We believe that in an informatics for everyone the proportion of knowledge about algorithmization should be at least a third and at most half of the time devoted to teaching.

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


References

References

1.Turcsányi-Szabó, M: Approaching Arts through Logo. Sixth European Logo Conference, Budapest, Hungary, pp20-23 August, 1997

2.Nouvelles Technologies. (1999) Mise á niveau informatique en classe de seconde – rentrée 2000. Bulletin Officiel du ministère de l’Education Nationale et du ministère de Recherche. N25 du 24 juin 1999. 1177–1181.

3.The National Curriculum for England (1999): Information and Communication Technology. Qualifications and Curriculum Authority. London. (http://www.nc.uk.net/download/IKT.doc)

4.Körösné Mikis, M.: Kalandozások Információországban, (Adventures in Informationland)http://www.oki.hu/oldal.php?tipus=cikk&kod=oktatas-korosne

5.Szlávi, P., Zsakó, L.: Delusions in informatics education. Teaching Mathematics and Computer Science, Vol. 2., No. 1., pp151-162, 2004.

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


References continuation

References(continuation)

6.Szlávi, P., Zsakó, L.: Informatics as a particular field of education. Teaching Mathematics and Computer Science, Vol. 3., No.2, pp283-294, 2005.

7.Zsakó, L.: Teaching Informatics in Hungary. The IOI'96 NewsLetter, No 2, pp5-6, No 3, pp5-6, No 4, pp5-6, 1995.

8.Turcsányi-Szabó, M., Ambruszter, G.: The past, present, and future of computers in education – the Hungarian image, International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long learning., UNESCO, 2001 Volume 11, Nos 4/5/6.

9.The National Curriculum for Hungary (2005), http://www.om.hu/main.php?folderID=391

10.Hvorecky, J., Kelemen, J.: Algoritmizácia, elementárny úvod. ALFA, Bratislava, 1983.

11.Pólya, Gy.: Mathematical Discovery on understanding, learning and teaching problem solving. John Viley & Sons Inc, New York, 1962.

12.Kátai, Z.: “Upperview” algorithm design in teaching computer science in high schools, Teaching Mathematics and Computer Science, Vol. 3., No.2, pp221-240, 2005.

Abonyi-Tóth,Szlávi,Zsakó: Programming Vs. Application


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