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RNA. Chapter 10.2. Structure of RNA. Ribose - the sugar molecule of every RNA nucleotide Uracil - nitrogen-containing pyrimidine base (replaces thymine) Uracil pairs with adenine in RNA. Types of RNA. Messenger RNA (mRNA) - consists of RNA nucleotides in the form of a single uncoiled chain

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RNA

Chapter 10.2


Structure of rna
Structure of RNA

  • Ribose- the sugar molecule of every RNA nucleotide

  • Uracil- nitrogen-containing pyrimidine base (replaces thymine)

  • Uracil pairs with adenine in RNA


Types of rna
Types of RNA

  • Messenger RNA (mRNA)- consists of RNA nucleotides in the form of a single uncoiled chain

  • Carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to the cytosol


  • Transfer RNA (tRNA)- consists of a single chain of about 80 RNA nucleotides in a hairpin shape

  • Binds to specific amino acids

  • 45 varieties


  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- most abundant form of RNA

  • Consists of globular RNA nucleotides

  • Makes up the ribosomes where proteins are made


Transcription
Transcription

  • Transcription- the process by which genetic information is copied from DNA to RNA

  • RNA polymerase binds to the promoter of a specific gene

  • A complimentary copy of the DNA base sequence is made


Steps of transcription
Steps of Transcription

  • RNA polymerase- the primary transcription enzyme

  • Synthesizes RNA copies of specific sequences of DNA


Promoters- specific regions of DNA where RNA polymerase binds to

Marks the beginning of a single gene

When RNA polymerase binds to DNA, the DNA separates and one side acts as a template


  • Termination signal- a specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a gene

  • At a termination signal, RNA polymerase releases the DNA and the newly formed RNA molecule


Products of transcription
Products of Transcription

  • Transcripts- the different types of RNA molecules

  • Instructions for making a protein are copied from DNA to mRNA


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