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RNA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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RNA. Chapter 10.2. Structure of RNA. Ribose - the sugar molecule of every RNA nucleotide Uracil - nitrogen-containing pyrimidine base (replaces thymine) Uracil pairs with adenine in RNA. Types of RNA. Messenger RNA (mRNA) - consists of RNA nucleotides in the form of a single uncoiled chain

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slide1

RNA

Chapter 10.2

structure of rna
Structure of RNA
  • Ribose- the sugar molecule of every RNA nucleotide
  • Uracil- nitrogen-containing pyrimidine base (replaces thymine)
  • Uracil pairs with adenine in RNA
types of rna
Types of RNA
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA)- consists of RNA nucleotides in the form of a single uncoiled chain
  • Carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to the cytosol
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Transfer RNA (tRNA)- consists of a single chain of about 80 RNA nucleotides in a hairpin shape
  • Binds to specific amino acids
  • 45 varieties
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Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- most abundant form of RNA
  • Consists of globular RNA nucleotides
  • Makes up the ribosomes where proteins are made
transcription
Transcription
  • Transcription- the process by which genetic information is copied from DNA to RNA
  • RNA polymerase binds to the promoter of a specific gene
  • A complimentary copy of the DNA base sequence is made
steps of transcription
Steps of Transcription
  • RNA polymerase- the primary transcription enzyme
  • Synthesizes RNA copies of specific sequences of DNA
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Promoters- specific regions of DNA where RNA polymerase binds to

Marks the beginning of a single gene

When RNA polymerase binds to DNA, the DNA separates and one side acts as a template

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Termination signal- a specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a gene
  • At a termination signal, RNA polymerase releases the DNA and the newly formed RNA molecule
products of transcription
Products of Transcription
  • Transcripts- the different types of RNA molecules
  • Instructions for making a protein are copied from DNA to mRNA
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