sims 247 information visualization and presentation marti hearst
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SIMS 247: Information Visualization and Presentation Marti Hearst Oct 10, 2005 Today Another animation example Fluid documents The third dimension The information visualizer and follow-ons Navigating in 3D space The debate: does 3D help? Cognitive abilities and 3D 3D vs 2D Alternative:

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today
Today
  • Another animation example
    • Fluid documents
  • The third dimension
    • The information visualizer and follow-ons
    • Navigating in 3D space
    • The debate: does 3D help?
      • Cognitive abilities and 3D
      • 3D vs 2D
    • Alternative:
      • 2.5D sequences (Automatic generation of assembly instructions)
fluid documents
Fluid Documents
  • Zellweger, Chang, Mackinlay. Fluid links for informed and incremental hypertext browsing. CHI\'99 Extended Abstracts
  • Better document-reading interface
  • Combines
    • Lightweight animation
    • Focus + context
3d animation
3D + Animation
  • Pioneered by Card and Robertson
    • Had state-of-the-art graphics hardware; wanted to see what happens when pushing the boundaries
    • Motivated by Card & Moran’s theories of cognitive architecture
  • Information Visualizer (PARC)
  • WebBook/Webforager (PARC, 1996)
  • Data Mountain (MS Research, 1998)
  • Task Gallery (MS Research, 2000)
information workspaces
Information Workspaces
  • Objective:
    • Decrease the costs for performing information-intensive tasks, or, alternatively, increase the scope of information that can be utilized for the same cost.
  • Method:
    • Large Workspaces
      • Make the immediate workspace virtually larger
    • Real-Time Interaction
      • Maximize the interaction rates
    • Visual Abstractions
      • Speed assimilation and pattern detection

8

slide6

Information Visualizer

17

research.microsoft.com/~ggr/gi97.ppt

slide7

Web Forager

http://research.microsoft.com/ui/TaskGallery/index.htm

24

data mountain
Robertson, Czerwinski et al, 1998

Follow-on to Information Visualizer

Organizing bookmarks using pile metaphor

Uses:

Spatial organization

3D view with 2D interaction

Cartoon animation details

Subtle audio cues

Debate:

Is this better than 2D?

Data Mountain
slide9

Task Gallery

Robertson et al., 2000

http://research.microsoft.com/ui/TaskGallery/index.htm

23

3d vs 2d
3D vs. 2D
  • Cockburn & McKenzie ’02
    • Results for prior work with 3D systems are primarily negative for viz of things that are not inherently in 3D, but really results are mixed
    • Compared 2D, 2½D and 3D views of web page thumbnails
    • Did this for both physical and virtual interfaces
    • Compared sparse, medium, and dense displays
3d vs 2d12
3D vs. 2D
  • Cockburn & McKenzie ’02
    • Results:
      • Time taken sig. increased through 2D -> 3D interfaces
      • Subjective assessment sig. decreased 2D -> 3D
      • Performance degraded with denser problems
      • 3D virtual interface produced the slowest times
      • People prefered the physical interfaces
      • People were better at using their spatial memory than they expected to be
      • There was a problem with the physical 2½D display
interacting with 3d spaces
Interacting with 3D spaces
  • Path-drawing for 3D walkthrough, Igarashi et al, UIST ’98
  • Problem: interacting with 3D via 2D screens
  • Solution: be clever about how to convert 2D to 3D based on what the user is likely to intend
the role of cognitive abilities
The Role of Cognitive Abilities
  • Leitheiser & Munro ‘95
    • Summarizes the results of earlier psychological research on spatial aptitiude
    • Also summarizes work on effects of spatial aptitude and UI use
    • Presents a study comparing a GUI with a command line interface, taking spatial abilities into account
the role of cognitive abilities15
The Role of Cognitive Abilities
  • Leitheiser & Munro ’95
  • Hypotheses:
    • Users with high spatial ability would benefit more from the GUI than those with low spatial ability (H1)
    • Users with high verbal ability would perform better on command line interfaces (H2)
  • Tasks:
    • Obtain system time, list files, look up a file update time, open a subdirectory, move a file, copy a file, etc
    • Between subjects GUI (Mac) vs. Command line (DOS)
  • Findings:
    • H1 supported
    • H2 not supported
    • Everyone did better on the GUI
      • Low spatial ability users using the GUI required 90% of the time needed for command line interface
infovis meta analysis
Infovis Meta-Analysis

(Empirical studies of information visualization:

a meta-analysis, Chen & Yu IJHCS 53(5),2000)

  • Goal
    • Find invariant underlying relations suggested collectively by empirical findings from many different studies
  • Procedure
    • Examine the literature of empirical infoviz studies
      • 35 studies between 1991 and 2000
      • 27 focused on information retrieval tasks
      • But due to wide differences in the conduct of the studies and the reporting of statistics, could use only 6 studies
infovis meta analysis17
Infovis Meta-Analysis

(Empirical studies of information visualization:

a meta-analysis, Chen & Yu IJHCS 53(5),2000)

  • Conclusions:
    • IR Infoviz studies not reported in a standard format
    • Individual cognitive differences had the largest effect
      • Especially on accuracy
      • Somewhat on efficiency
    • Holding cognitive abilities constant, users did better with simpler visual-spatial interfaces
    • The combined effect of visualization is not statistically significant
gender differences and 3d
Gender differences and 3D
  • Previous studies often found gender differences in 3D navigation
  • Czerwinski et al. wondered why; saw a hint in one study, did a followup study in detail
  • Idea: change the assumptions
    • Make screen wider
    • Gender performance differences disappear
    • Both improved
sequences of steps vs 3d animation
Sequences of Steps vs 3D + Animation
  • Heiser, Phan, Agarwala, Tversky, Hanrahan ‘04
  • Domain: assembly instructions
  • Identify
    • How people conceive of 3D assemblies
    • How people comprehend visual instructions
  • Validate
    • Build automated instruction design system
    • Evaluate usability of resulting instructions

Slides from Heiser et al.

ensure visibility of parts
Ensure Visibility of Parts
  • Show parts added in each step
  • Show mode and location of attachment
  • Avoid changing viewpoint
  • Use physically stable orientation

Slides from Heiser et al.

illustrate assembly operations
Illustrate Assembly Operations
  • Use action diagrams rather than structural
  • Use arrows and guidelines to indicate attachment

Structural diagrams

Action diagrams

Slides from Heiser et al.

usability study
Usability Study
  • 30 Participants
  • Given 1 of 3 instruction sets: hand-drawn, factory, computer
  • Assemble TV stand using instructions

Slides from Heiser et al.

instructions tested
Instructions Tested

Hand-drawn

Factory

Computer generated

Slides from Heiser et al.

results
Results

Time to assemble

(min)

  • Errors:Hand-drawn 1.6 Factory 0.6 Computer 0.5
  • Users rated task as easiest in computer condition

18.9

16.0

10.2

Hand-drawn Factory Computer

Slides from Heiser et al.

next time
Next Time
  • Martin Wattenberg!
    • SIMS distinguished lecture: 4-5:30pm
    • Our class too
  • Some of Martin’s Projects:
    • Map of the Market
    • Baby names visualizer
    • Music arcs
    • History flow
    • Bioinformatics visualization
    • Conversation visualization
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