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The SABER Instrument Aboard the TIMED Satellite . Hampton University Interdisciplinary Sciences Center Dianne Q. Robinson, Barbara H. Maggi, Aileen M. Seshun, and Sherrye Pollard March 2003. Hampton University’s SABER Education & Public Outreach.

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The saber instrument aboard the timed satellite l.jpg

The SABER Instrument Aboard the TIMED Satellite

Hampton UniversityInterdisciplinary Sciences CenterDianne Q. Robinson, Barbara H. Maggi, Aileen M. Seshun, and Sherrye Pollard March 2003


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Hampton University’s SABER Education & Public Outreach

  • Principal Investigator – James M. Russell, III, Ph.D.

  • Outreach Director – Dianne Q. Robinson, Ph.D.

  • Assistant Outreach Director – Barbara H. Maggi

  • Education Coordinator – Aileen M. Seshun

  • Teacher Advisor – Sherrye Pollard

  • Teacher Advisor – Karen Steele


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Acronyms Defined

TIMED: ThermosphereIonosphereMesophere Energetics & Dynamics

SABER:Sounding of the Atmosphere UsingBroadband Emission Radiometry


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TIMED Mission

  • Sun-synchronous (polar orbiting) satellite located approximately 388 miles (625 km) above Earth. Orbit cycle is approximately 1.7 hours / 14 orbits a day.

  • Focus on least understood portion of the Earth’s atmospheric region (MLTI) extending from 40-110 miles (60 km to 180 km) above the Earth.

  • Collected data is being used to predict weather & global warming.

  • Mission duration anticipated to be two years.


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SABER Mission

  • Produce a global picture of how the MLTI region changes over time.

  • Analyze & take measurements of processes governing the energetics, chemistry, dynamics, & transport of the MLTI region where the energy & chemistry are unique* from other atmospheric regions

  • Retrieve global day / night vertical profile measurements of atmospheric temperature, density, & pressure.

    * There are fewer molecules in the MLTI, affecting how the atmosphere radiates & absorbs heat. This includes fewer aerosols.


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Two Points to Clarify

TIMED is the satellite which will study the variability of the Mesosphere & Lower Thermosphere/Ionosphere region (MLTI).

SABER is one of the four instruments on board the TIMED spacecraft.



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SABER as a Remote Sensor

  • SABER is a “passive remote sensor,” because it observes the atmosphere like a camera without a flash. (In contrast, an “active remote sensor” would be like a camera that has to illuminate its subject with a flash in order to take a picture.)

  • SABER will observe atmospheric infrared backscatter. (Backscatter is the scattering of light off of particles in the backward direction.)


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SABER as a Remote Sensor (continued)

  • Solar radiation will illuminate the atmosphere from behind the spacecraft, like a flashlight, stimulating the atmosphere to emit infrared radiation.

  • SABER will observe the infrared radiation using an instrument called a “multispectral radiometer.”

  • A moving optical instrument allows SABER to observe a variety of altitudes in the region of study.


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Views of SABER Instrument

http://saber.larc.nasa.gov/


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SABER Background

  • Built by Utah State University Space Dynamics Laboratory & is managed by NASA Langley Research Center.

  • Launched on December 7, 2001 from Vandenberg Air Force Base

  • Is a multi-channel radiometer measuring infrared energy emitted by the atmosphere over a broad altitude & spectral range.


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Upper Atmosphere’s Radiation Budget

First

Types of Measurements:

  • Energy balance between Earth’s incoming & outgoing energy in Earth’s upper atmosphere

  • Infrared radiation emitted by the upper atmosphere

  • Strength of heat by ultraviolet radiation from the Sun (airglow)


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Airglow from Earth’s Limb

When sunlight comes into contact with chemically active molecules, the atmosphere emits energy through photochemical processes known as airglow. Red = high airglow emission / Blue = low airglow emission. (http://oea.larc.nasa.gov/PAIS.SABER.html)


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April 10, 2002

April 18, 2002

NO (110 km)

NO (110 km)

TIMED Watches Earth's Response to Strong Solar Storms in April 2002

High values (yellow & red)

Low values (green & blue)

Photo Credits Attributed to NASA / Hampton University(http://www.timed.jhuapl.edu/TIMED_Data/saber_data.html March 2002)


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Atmospheric Structure & Dynamics

SABER’s observations will:

  • Provide new informationabout how temperature,density, & pressure changewith altitude.

  • Track the movement of airbetween the poles, fromlower to upper atmosphericregions, from season to season around the globe.

Chart by R. Bradley PierceNASA LaRC


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Parameter

CO2

O3

O2 (‘)

CO2

OH(V)

NO

H2O

Wavelength (m)

14.9 & 15.2

9.6

1.27

4.3

2.0 & 1.6

5.3

6.9

Key Gases in the Upper Atmosphere

  • Gases that warm & cool the MLTI region through absorption of solar radiation & emission of infrared radiation (heat energy):

  • SABER measures the vertical distribution of these gases


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SABER will make the first-ever measurements of the global distribution of carbon dioxide concentrations in the MLTI region.

SABER will also provide the first measurements of ozone during the day & at night in the MLTI region.

First

Key Gases (continued)

First


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SABER E/PO Deliverables distribution of carbon dioxide concentrations in the MLTI region.(Education & Public Outreach)

  • SABER Educational Web Site

    • Will be developed by Hampton University & linked to Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory TIMED web site

    • Will contain scientific information & teacher activities

  • NASA Connect (grades 5 - 8)

    • Will work with NASA Langley to develop a program incorporating the TIMED mission including a segment on the SABER instrument


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SABER E/PO Deliverables distribution of carbon dioxide concentrations in the MLTI region.(continued)

  • SABER Teacher Training

    • Conduct workshops on SABER instrument & TIMED mission

  • SABER Conference Presentations

    • Conduct presentations to inform the general public, educators, & students


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Benefits to Educational Institutions* distribution of carbon dioxide concentrations in the MLTI region.

  • Association with NASA, Hampton University, Johns Hopkins University

  • Technology involvement in Real Time / Real Life dissemination/explanation of actual scientific research

  • Professional Development for teachers

  • Publish lesson plans & activities on the SABER website

  • Building of interest & enthusiasm for students to study science, math, & technology

  • Exposure of students to new careers in science, math, & technology

* Schools, universities; educators, & students


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The TIMED Education Website distribution of carbon dioxide concentrations in the MLTI region.

http://www.timed.jhuapl.edu/education2/new_index.html


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SABER distribution of carbon dioxide concentrations in the MLTI region.Schematic

TIMEDTeacher’s Lesson Plan

  • Objectives:

  • Work with ratio, proportion, scale drawing, & coordinate graphing

  • Locate objects on a coordinate grid

  • Enlarge a picture of SABER using coordinates


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Middle School Activity distribution of carbon dioxide concentrations in the MLTI region.- 'How SABER 'Sees' the Earth' (developed at W.E. Waters Middle School, Portsmouth, VA)See how a hula-hoop can simulate TIMED's sun-synchronous orbit as it revolves around the Earth as Earth orbits around the sun. At the same time, learn how the instrument looks NOT at the Earth itself, but through the atmospheric limb, & how this provides several unique, first-time measurements.

Classroom Activities

High School Activity - 'Exothermic & Endothermic Chemical Reactions of Hot & Cold Materials (developed at Perquimans’ County High School, Hertford, NC) Are you looking for a new way to teach your students about remote sensing? Our website will show you how to use a cola can to build a remote sensing tool that demonstrates the science behind the SABER instrument riding on the TIMED satellite.


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Celebrate What You’ve Learned distribution of carbon dioxide concentrations in the MLTI region.

  • Remember when I described the difference between TIMED & SABER? Who can tell us what that difference is?

  • SABER looks at the Earth’s ____________ _______.

  • Name at least one of the s for SABER.

  • Who can mention one other interesting fact about this instrument?

First


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