The Jacobean Era

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The Jacobean Era

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1. The Jacobean Era James I 1603-1625 Cousin of Elizabeth Already King of Scotland Son of Elizabeth’s former archenemy, Mary, Queen of Scots

3. Disruption and Change 1625-1660 Charles I Son of James I Took over the throne in 1625 Lasted until 1649

4. Disruption and Change 1625-1660 England was well on its way to civil war Causes were both political and religious The Puritan movement had developed into a powerful enemy of the Anglican establishment Charles I tried to crack down on organized religious protest He was met with violent opposition

5. Disruption and Change 1625-1660 Civil War (continued) In Parliament, the lawyers and landlords who controlled the House of Commons withheld more and more funds from the executive functions of government Charles responded by trying to rule without the support of Parliament

6. Disruption and Change 1625-1660 Civil War (continued) His strategy did not work Parliament had grown too strong Parliament determined to call the king and his supporters to account Executed Charles’ two biggest supporters Charles left London and established his army at Nottingham By August of 1642, England was in the throes of open civil war

7. Disruption and Change 1625-1660 The king’s supporters (rich, carefree, long-haired, reckless, young; called “Cavaliers”) were no match for the Parliamentary forces (grimly determined Puritans who wore their hair cropped off; called “Roundheads”)

8. Disruption and Change 1625-1660 Oliver Cromwell 1599-1658 Commander of the Parliamentary forces Molded his men into a fearless and disciplined New Model Army known as “Ironsides” fought fiercely because it saw itself as the agent of God’s vengeance and punishment

9. Disruption and Change 1625-1660 By 1649, the royalist forces had been defeated and King Charles was a prisoner Charles was tried as an enemy of the English people On January 30, 1649, he was beheaded

10. Disruption and Change 1625-1660 Eventually, Cromwell took the power of the government into his own hand and established what he called the Protectorate (1653-1658) Basically a military dictatorship Cromwell died in 1658

11. Disruption and Change 1625-1660 Charles II By 1660, the English people had had enough of harsh Puritan rule Brought back Charles II Charles I’s eldest son Exiled in Paris Ruled from 1660-1685

12. Disruption and Change 1625-1660 Charles II’s return called the “Restoration” of the monarchy New Parliament was elected England returned to the form of government it had known before the war

13. Disruption and Change 1625-1660 Effects of the Civil War and Cromwell’s Protectorate Parliament had a new sense of its importance in directing the affairs of the country

14. Disruption and Change 1625-1660 Effects of the Civil War and Cromwell’s Protectorate England had more than ever before become a country of multiplicity and diversity regarding politics and religion The Anglican Church and the monarchy had been restored to prominence but no longer dominated English life as they had done before the Civil War

15. Literature in a Century of Change Drama The early decades of the seventeenth century saw a continuation of the boundless creativity of the Elizabethan stage In much Jacobean drama, a darker and more disturbing image of life appears themes of violence, madness, and corruption

16. Famous Playwrights Ben Jonson The greatest Jacobean after Shakespeare Famous Plays Volpone The Alchemist

17. Poetry The poetry of the seventeenth century can be described as the expression of two main styles or approaches Metaphysical Poets Classical and Conservative Style

18. Poetry Metaphysical Poets Used extended, highly intellectualized images often drawn from scholastic philosophy or metaphysics Also referred to as the School of Donne, after John Donne, the most significant metaphysical poet The metaphysical poem is more argumentative in tone Its meter is usually varied, irregular, even deliberately rough and harsh It often depends on conceits Extended metaphors

19. Poetry John Donne 1572-1631 Most significant metaphysical poet

20. Poetry Classical and Conservative Style This poetry subjected experience to the discipline and restraint of reason, of classical form, of meticulous craftsmanship Ben Jonson was the chief practitioner of this style His immediate followers are referred to as the School of Jonson or, referring more specifically to the group of young poets who took up Jonson’s neoclassical standards, as the “Sons of Ben” or the “Tribe of Ben”

21. Poetry These writers were called the Cavalier Poets Robert Herrick (1591-1674) John Suckling (1609-1642) Richard Lovelace (1618-1657) Suckling and Lovelace’s poems display an effortless, aristocratic nonchalance The entire Jonsonian tradition, including its Cavalier segment, provided the main basis for post-Restoration poetry in the age of John Dryden and Alexander Pope.

22. Poetry Robert Herrick 1591-1674

23. Poetry John Suckling 1609-1642

24. Poetry Richard Lovelace 1618-1657

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