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SRI LANKA : A LAND IN CRISIS ONE ISLAND, TWO NATIONS PowerPoint PPT Presentation

ECE 510 KAVITHA KRISHNAPPA PORTLAND STATE UNIVERISTY. SRI LANKA : A LAND IN CRISIS ONE ISLAND, TWO NATIONS. AGENDA. INTRODUCTION ETHNIC CONFLICT WITH THE LTTE ROLE OF INDIAN PEACE KEEPING FORCE IN SRI LANKA ROLE OF SAARC IN MANTAINING PEACE IN THIS ISLAND NATION

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Ece 510 kavitha krishnappa portland state univeristy

ECE 510

KAVITHA KRISHNAPPA

PORTLAND STATE UNIVERISTY

SRI LANKA : A LAND IN CRISISONE ISLAND, TWO NATIONS


Agenda

AGENDA

  • INTRODUCTION

  • ETHNIC CONFLICT WITH THE LTTE

  • ROLE OF INDIAN PEACE KEEPING FORCE IN SRI LANKA

  • ROLE OF SAARC IN MANTAINING PEACE IN THIS ISLAND NATION

  • BUDDHISM AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE COUNTRY

  • SRI LANKAN ECONOMY


Introduction

INTRODUCTION

  • Sri lanka is an island nation situated in the Indian ocean and has many nicknames like Serendib, Teardrop of India, Resplendent Isle

  • Even though the official language is Sinhalese Tamil presence is felt everywhere

  • It was known to the Greeks, Romans and Persians .

  • It is a multi-ethnic and multi-religious country

  • Main religion being Buddhism.

  • Many lowland Sinhalese people converted to Christianity during the Portuguese rule during the 16th century.

  • A mixed Dutch-Sinhalese people are a legacy of the Dutch rule

  • Gained independence from the British rule on 4th February 1948


Introduction1

INTRODUCTION


National flag

NATIONAL FLAG

  • The present day Sri Lankan flag is an improvisation of the civil standard of its last king

  • The lion represents the Sinhala race

  • The four bo - leaves Buddhism and the four virtues

  • The vertical stripes of orange and green represents Hinduism and Muslim


Introduction fact file

INTRODUCTION – FACT FILE

  • Total Population : 19 million

  • Literacy rate : 92%

  • Per capita GDP : US $900

  • Srilanka’s business environment ranks 11th in the region and 42nd in the world.

  • Population density : 289 per sq Km

  • Annual growth rate : 1.37%

  • Life expectancy : 67.5 years

  • Ethnic groups :

    Sinhalese – 74%

    Tamil – 18%

    Muslims – 7%

    Others( Burghers, Eurasians, Malay ) – 1%

  • Rice is the staple food of this island nation and is cultivated as a wetland crop


Political turmoil

POLITICAL TURMOIL

  • In 1960 under the rule of Sirimavo Bandaranaike, the world’s first elected female head of government, Srilanka became a republic, Free Sovereign and Independent Republic of Srilanka.

  • Her socialist policies of nationalization led to a cut-off of United States aid which led to economic crisis

  • The oil cartels boycotted the country when Bandaranaike nationalized the country’s oil companies

  • Another cause for its economic crisis for the declining market for its traditional commodity exports like coffee, tea and rubber

  • A five year plan was implemented to achieve industrial development

  • Progress was made in the fields of heavy industry, automotive spares and electronics


Political turmoil1

POLITICAL TURMOIL

  • The five year plan suffered a setback due a shortage in foreign exchange which was exacerbated by the oil crisis in 1974 combined with drought which affected its staple crop, rice

  • In 1971 a group called the People’s Liberation Front (JVP) launched a rebellion motivated by anti-Tamil nationalism

  • Tamil nationalists responded to this rebellion as they felt their independence and human rights threatened

  • This led to the formation of many Tamil separatist groups demanding an independent Tamil state called Eelam and the country began sliding towards a civil war

  • In 1978, Jayewardene introduced a new constitution making Srilanka a presidential ‘Democratic socialist’ republic with himself as the executive president and leaving the Tamil United Liberation Front as the main opposition. This led to dangerous ethnic divide in the Srilankan politics


Liberation of tamil tigers eelam

LIBERATION OF TAMIL TIGERS EELAM

  • LTTE was founded on May 5th 1976 by Vellupillai Prabhakaran

  • Its members mostly included students who felt their human rights being violated and treated unfairly with the grading and in admissions to degree programs

  • Their first military operation was the assassination of the mayor of Jaffna and looting of several banks to fund their operation

  • Their actions resulted in martial law in Jaffna and the LTTE targeted the military by killing 13 Sri Lankan soldiers

  • Under the leadership of Prabhakaran it is a highly disciplined group with a strong ideological base

  • All the recruits wear a cyanide capsule around their neck to be swallowed in case they are captured

  • It is also notorious for recruiting children under the age of 15 to fight in combats


Liberation of tamil tigers eelam1

LIBERATION OF TAMIL TIGERS EELAM


Liberation of tamil tigers eelam2

LIBERATION OF TAMIL TIGERS EELAM

  • There are some 2,000 children in various ranks in the LTTE known as the baby brigade

  • LTTE have launched several attacks to continuously make their presence felt

  • LTTE terrorist attack on Colombo airport

  • LTTE bomb attack on central bank, Colombo, in which 55 civilians were killed and 1,500 more were severely wounded

  • LTTE also carries out a number of civilian duties in the regions where it has significant control


Role of indian peace keeping force

ROLE OF INDIAN PEACE KEEPING FORCE

  • India became involved in the ethnic conflict in Srilanka during the mid 1980’s

  • The Indo – Srilankan Peace accord signed on July 29th, 1987 led to the formation of the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) to oversee a ceasefire and moderate disarmament of the military groups

  • The IPKF increasingly became a partisan force fighting against the Tamils

  • During the three year involvement from 1987 to 1990 India lost 1,500 troops and around 4,500 more were wounded

  • Even though India supported both sides in different ways the assassination of Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi swung the pendulum to the other extreme and support for LTTE dropped to near zero


Continuing tensions

CONTINUING TENSIONS

  • Even to this day no concrete ceasefire has been reached between the Srilankan army and the Tamil Tigers

  • No further progress has been made in achieving a political or a military solution

  • Twenty years of civil conflict had done immense damage to Srilankan society and economy

  • The island nation has gone from being called “Paradise on Earth” to “Island of Death”

  • The LTTE has a strong hold on north and east Srilanka

  • Srilankan troops continue to fight by sinking 11 tiger boats in North Eastern sea including 5 suicide boats and killing at least 75 Tigers


Present day sri lanka

PRESENT DAY SRI LANKA


Srilankan economy

SRILANKAN ECONOMY

  • Sri Lankan economic prospects depend on the political stability and the internal security of the nation

  • Around 20 percent of the population are employed in agriculture and the principal crops include rice, tea, rubber and coconut

  • Tea is the prominent crop in the plantation sector and is Sri lanka’s largest export crop

  • It is also home to variety of tropical fruits and vegetables


Development projects

DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS


Saarc south asian association for regional coopeartion

SAARC – SOUTH ASIAN ASSOCIATION FOR REGIONAL COOPEARTION


Saarc south asian association for regional coopeartion1

SAARC – SOUTH ASIAN ASSOCIATION FOR REGIONAL COOPEARTION

  • It’s the largest regional organization in the world with 1.47 billion people

  • Founded in 1985 its an economic and political organization of eight countries in Southern Asia

  • Its members include India, Nepal, Srilanka, Maldives, Bhutan, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan

  • The countries agreed on five areas of co-operation

    - Agriculture and Rural development

    - Telecommunications, Science, Technology and

    Meteorology

    - Health and Population Activities

    - Transport

    - Human Resource Development


Influence of buddhism

INFLUENCE OF BUDDHISM

  • Religion and ethnicity plays a very important role not only in the Srilankan way of life but also in its politics

  • Buddhism is a way of achieving enlightenment and peace in this divided society

  • Srilanka is also home to some of the most spectacular world heritage sites in the world


References

REFERENCES

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Sri_Lanka

  • http://www.lankalibrary.com/

  • http://countrystudies.us/sri-lanka/http://countrystudies.us/sri-lanka

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SAARC

  • www.infolanka.com

  • www.pbs.org

  • www.yahoo.com/Regional/Countries/Sri_Lanka

  • http://www.forut.no/index.php/20404-1


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