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SPEAKING ASSESSMENT. Joko Nurkamto UNS Solo. ISSUES IN ASSESSING SPEAKING. Language proficiency versus speaking proficiency The issue of interactivity The issue of creating authentic conditions for speech testing The issue of spoken genre and testing

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SPEAKING ASSESSMENT

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Speaking assessment l.jpg

SPEAKING ASSESSMENT

Joko Nurkamto

UNS Solo


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ISSUES IN ASSESSING SPEAKING

  • Language proficiency versus speaking proficiency

  • The issue of interactivity

  • The issue of creating authentic conditions for speech testing

  • The issue of spoken genre and testing

  • Integrated versus discrete skills testing

  • The criteria for tests of speaking


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LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY VERSUS SPEAKING PROFICIENCY

In a naturally occurring spontaneous speech, interlocutors do not focus on the mechanics of their interaction but on the ideas, emotions, or information being conveyed. In a language testing, a strong focus tends to be put on the samples of language used in relation to

pre-decided criteria.


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THE ISSUE OF INTERACTIVITY

In an interactive speech, whether a candidate is asked to interact with an examiner or with another student, it is extremely hard to eliminate the effect of one speaker on another. This is in part due to the fact that good oral communication is founded on one speaker actually having an effect on another, and on the reactions and responses which take place between interlocutors.


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THE ISSUE OF CREATING AUTHENTIC CONDITIONS FOR SPEECH TESTING

In implementing test methods, examiners

must take into account their effects on the nature of discourse of responses. The challenge is to consider

how test methods can be manipulated to engage

features of natural spoken discourse. ... The relationship between the input and the expected response

should be reciprocal; that is, the speaker’s message

should have the capability of reducing uncertainty

in the listener, which in turn will allow the listener

to fashion a massage in response that reflects

the change in information.


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THE ISSUE OF SPOKEN GENRES AND TESTING

Field-specific oral tests relate to the testing of speech genres. … Some professional contexts require very specific oral language use

(for example, air traffic control and doctor-patient encounters) and tests can be designed to assess the test takers ability to communicate

in relation to typical language of

these target genres.


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INTEGRATED VERSUS DISCRETE SKILLS TESTING

Listening and speaking are theoretically

and practically very difficult to separate. Serious consideration should be given to integrate them methodologically. That is, we should consider

an oral/aural skill test, where the test taker

uses his or her communicative language ability

to produce and comprehend meanings in a variety of tasks and receives a single score

reflecting the performance.


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THE CRITERIA FOR TESTS OF SPEAKING

  • International English Language Testing System (IELTS)

  • Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE)

  • Certificates in English Language Skills (CELS)


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IELTS

  • Fluency and coherence

  • Lexical resource

  • Grammatical range and accuracy

  • Pronunciation


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FLUENCY AND COHERENCE (IELTS)

  • It refers to the ability to talk with normal levels of continuity, rate and effort and to link ideas and language together to form coherent, connected speech.

  • The key indicators of fluency are speech rate and speech continuity.

  • The key indicators of coherence are logical sequencing of sentences, clear marking of stages in a discussion, narration or argument, and the use of cohesive devices within and between sentences.


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LEXICAL RESOURCE (IELTS)

  • It refers to the range of vocabulary the candidate can use and the precision with which meanings and attitudes can be expressed.

  • The key indicators are the variety of words used, the adequacy and appropriacy of the words used and the ability to circumlocute with or without noticeable hesitation.


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GRAMMATICAL RANGE AND ACCURACY (IELTS)

  • It refers to the range and accurate and appropriate use of the candidate’s grammatical resource.

  • The key indicators of grammatical range are the length and complexity of the spoken sentences, the appropriate use of subordinate clauses, and the range of sentence structure.

  • The key indicators of grammatical accuracy are the number of grammatical errors in a given amount of speech and the communicative effect of error.


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PRONUNCIATION (IELTS)

  • It refers to the ability to produce comprehensible speech to fulfill the speaking test requirements.

  • The key indicators are the amount of strain caused to the listener, the amount of the speech which is unintelligible and the noticeability of L1 influence.


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CPE

  • Discourse management

  • Lexical resource

  • Grammatical resource

  • Pronunciation

  • Interactive communication


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DISCOURSE MANAGEMENT (CPE)

It refers to the ability to link utterances together

to form coherent monologue and contribution to dialogue. The utterances should be relevant to the tasks and to preceding utterances

in the discourse. The discourse produced

should be at a level of complexity appropriate to CPE level and the utterances should be arranged logically to develop the themes or arguments required by the tasks.


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LEXICAL RESORCE (CPE)

It refers to the candidate’s ability

to use a wide and appropriate range of vocabulary to meet task requirements.

At CPE level the tasks require candidates

to express precise meaning, attitudes

and options and to be able

to convey abstract ideas.


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GRAMMATICAL RESORCE (CPE)

It refers to the accurate application of grammar rules and the effective arrangement of words in utterances.

At CPE level a wide range of structures should be used appropriately

and competently.


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PRONUNCIATION (CPE)

It refers to the ability to produce easily comprehensible utterances. Articulation of individual sounds is not required to be native speaker-like but should be sufficiently clear for all words to be easily understood. An acceptable rhythm of connected speech should be achieved by the appropriate use of strong and weak syllables, the smooth linking of words and

the effective highlighting of information-bearing words. Intonation should be used effectively

to convey meaning.


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INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION (CPE)

It refers to the ability to take an active part in the development of the discourse, showing sensitivity to turn taking and without undue hesitation. It requires the ability to participate competently in the range of interactive situation in the test and to develop discussion on a range of topics by initiating and responding appropriately. It also refers to the deployment

of strategies to maintain and repair interaction

at an appropriate level throughout the test.


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CELS

  • Discourse management

  • Grammar and vocabulary

  • Pronunciation

  • Interactive communication


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THANK YOU


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