SPEAKING ASSESSMENT. Joko Nurkamto UNS Solo. ISSUES IN ASSESSING SPEAKING. Language proficiency versus speaking proficiency The issue of interactivity The issue of creating authentic conditions for speech testing The issue of spoken genre and testing
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In a naturally occurring spontaneous speech, interlocutors do not focus on the mechanics of their interaction but on the ideas, emotions, or information being conveyed. In a language testing, a strong focus tends to be put on the samples of language used in relation to
In an interactive speech, whether a candidate is asked to interact with an examiner or with another student, it is extremely hard to eliminate the effect of one speaker on another. This is in part due to the fact that good oral communication is founded on one speaker actually having an effect on another, and on the reactions and responses which take place between interlocutors.
In implementing test methods, examiners
must take into account their effects on the nature of discourse of responses. The challenge is to consider
how test methods can be manipulated to engage
features of natural spoken discourse. ... The relationship between the input and the expected response
should be reciprocal; that is, the speaker’s message
should have the capability of reducing uncertainty
in the listener, which in turn will allow the listener
to fashion a massage in response that reflects
the change in information.
Field-specific oral tests relate to the testing of speech genres. … Some professional contexts require very specific oral language use
(for example, air traffic control and doctor-patient encounters) and tests can be designed to assess the test takers ability to communicate
in relation to typical language of
these target genres.
Listening and speaking are theoretically
and practically very difficult to separate. Serious consideration should be given to integrate them methodologically. That is, we should consider
an oral/aural skill test, where the test taker
uses his or her communicative language ability
to produce and comprehend meanings in a variety of tasks and receives a single score
reflecting the performance.
It refers to the ability to link utterances together
to form coherent monologue and contribution to dialogue. The utterances should be relevant to the tasks and to preceding utterances
in the discourse. The discourse produced
should be at a level of complexity appropriate to CPE level and the utterances should be arranged logically to develop the themes or arguments required by the tasks.
It refers to the candidate’s ability
to use a wide and appropriate range of vocabulary to meet task requirements.
At CPE level the tasks require candidates
to express precise meaning, attitudes
and options and to be able
to convey abstract ideas.
It refers to the accurate application of grammar rules and the effective arrangement of words in utterances.
At CPE level a wide range of structures should be used appropriately
It refers to the ability to produce easily comprehensible utterances. Articulation of individual sounds is not required to be native speaker-like but should be sufficiently clear for all words to be easily understood. An acceptable rhythm of connected speech should be achieved by the appropriate use of strong and weak syllables, the smooth linking of words and
the effective highlighting of information-bearing words. Intonation should be used effectively
to convey meaning.
It refers to the ability to take an active part in the development of the discourse, showing sensitivity to turn taking and without undue hesitation. It requires the ability to participate competently in the range of interactive situation in the test and to develop discussion on a range of topics by initiating and responding appropriately. It also refers to the deployment
of strategies to maintain and repair interaction
at an appropriate level throughout the test.