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Intelligent Robotics An Introduction The King’s Academy November 2, 2007 Basic Definitions Artificial Intelligence Study intelligence Apply – design intelligent systems Purpose – to better serve mankind Basic Definitions Robot Embodied Autonomous Agent Intelligent robot

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Intelligent RoboticsAn Introduction

The King’s Academy

November 2, 2007


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Basic Definitions

  • Artificial Intelligence

    • Study intelligence

    • Apply – design intelligent systems

    • Purpose – to better serve mankind

The King's Academy


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Basic Definitions

  • Robot

    • Embodied

    • Autonomous

    • Agent

  • Intelligent robot

    • + Intelligent

The King's Academy


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Embodied

  • Situated

    • Located in the world

  • Sensor (receptor)

    • Receive “raw” information about world

  • Effector (actuator)

    • Accomplish an action

      • with respect to self

      • with respect to world

    • “one who brings about a result or event; one who accomplishes a purpose”

The King's Academy


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Autonomous

  • Autos :: self

  • Nomos :: law

  • Definition

    • Self-governing

      • Note: The term cybernetics stems from the Greek Κυβερνήτης (kybernetes, steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder — the same root as government).

    • Independent in mind or judgment

    • Self-directing

    • Not controlled by others or outside forces

The King's Academy


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Agent

  • Definition

    • One that acts or has power/authority to act

    • One that represents another

    • Root meaning – one that acts or exerts power

    • Means of effecting a result

  • Software agent (David Croft)

    • Delegacy – discretionary authority

    • Competence

    • Amenability – ability to adapt

    • Software resident

The King's Academy


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Intelligence

  • Many definitions

  • MSN Encarta: “general mental capability to reason, solve problems, think abstractly, learn and understand new material, and profit from past experience. Intelligence can be measured by many different kinds of tasks . . . Intelligence draws on a variety of mental processes, including memory, learning, perception, decision-making, thinking, and reasoning.”

  • Einstein: “Imagination is more important than knowledge.”

  • Henk Tuten: “complex use of creativity”

The King's Academy


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Intelligence

  • Another view

  • Creative simplicity

  • Examples

    • Every mileage divisible by 3000

    • Cutting the Gordian knot

    • Efficient use of cars

The King's Academy


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Robot “Primitives” – Murphy

  • Sense

  • Plan

  • Act

  • 4th – Learn

The King's Academy


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Origin of Robot Basics

  • Serve  Act

  • Autonomous  Sense

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Origin of Robot Basics

  • The most basic ::

    • Act

    • Sense

The King's Academy


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Origin of Robot Basics

  • Serve  Act

  • Autonomous  Sense

  • Changing environment  Plan

  • Plan  Reason

  • Plan  Represent knowledge

  • Knowledge  Learning

The King's Academy


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Robot Basics

  • Sense

  • Act

  • Represent knowledge

  • Reason

  • Learn

The King's Academy


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Robot Action Paradigms

  • Deliberative

  • Reactive

  • Hybrid – deliberative/reactive

The King's Academy


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Deliberative Paradigm

  • Emphasis – knowledge representation

  • Detailed plan generation

  • Computationally expensive

  • Example

    • Shakey

    • Stanford Research Institute

  • Frame problem

The King's Academy


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Reactive Paradigm

  • Emphasis – sense/act coupling

  • Knowledge resides in world

  • Simple animal intelligence

    • Insects

    • Frog

  • Example

    • Roomba

    • Rodney Brooks

    • iRobot

  • Limited operability

The King's Academy


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Hybrid Paradigm

  • Emphasis – behavior set

  • Knowledge base & reasoning

  • Action triggers

  • Example

    • Minerva

    • Sebastian Thrun

    • CMU & U/Bonn

  • Limits unknown

The King's Academy


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Unexplored Possibilities

  • Assistive robotics

    • Physical therapy

    • Occupational therapy

  • Swarm Intelligence

  • Autonomous vehicles

  • Example

    • Little Ben

    • Lehigh, Penn, Lockheed

  • DARPA Grand Challenge

The King's Academy


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1000 Mile Journey

  • Single steps

    • Mathematics

    • Computer science

    • Not a hoof left behind

  • Faithful servant

    • Share Master’s joy

  • Heads or Tails

    • You shall be the head and not the tail

The King's Academy


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