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Prologue. Designer: Eric Kimsey The following powerpoint presentation was designed to fulfill the requirements of the TAPS program at Jefferson Labs in Newport News, VA summer 2006.

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Prologue l.jpg
Prologue

  • Designer: Eric Kimsey

  • The following powerpoint presentation was designed to fulfill the requirements of the TAPS program at Jefferson Labs in Newport News, VA summer 2006.

  • This presentation was also designed to accompanyand expound upon the topic of Light and the Electromagnetic Spectrum as required by the state of Virginia Physical Science SOL’s (PS.9c).


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Spectroscopy

A Tool of Astronomers


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Definitions

  • Spectroscopy- the study of the light from an object.

  • Spectrometer- an instrument which spreads out light making a spectra.

  • Spectra- range of electromagnetic energy separated by wavelength.


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Astronomers use spectroscopy because it allows them to determine the makeup of stars… without having to be present to take samples.


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Studying an objects spectra can tell scientists the composition of an object, its temperature, its density and its motion.


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Two modern applications of spectroscopy in space… composition of an object, its temperature, its density and its motion.


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Mars Exploration Mission composition of an object, its temperature, its density and its motion.

The Mars Exploration Rovers were launched with the goal of searching for and analyzing rock and soils on Mars. They utilized several spectrometers to analyze samples.

Mini-TES: miniature thermal emission spectrometer (examine rock, soil & atmosphere)

MB: Mossbauer Spectrometer (examine mineralogy of rocks & soils)

APXS: Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (analyze elements in rocks & soils)


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Cassini-Hyugen’s Mission composition of an object, its temperature, its density and its motion.

Mission: to gather information on Titan (Saturn’s moon).

VIMS: Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (gather data about surface, rings & atmosphere of Titan and Saturn).

CIRS: Composite Infrared Spectrometer (searches for heat and by that gather information on the object’s composition.


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2 Basic Types of Spectra composition of an object, its temperature, its density and its motion.

  • Continuous- energy of all wavelengths

  • Discrete- energy at a particular wavelength

    • Emission or bright lines

    • Absorption or dark lines


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Continuous Spectrum composition of an object, its temperature, its density and its motion.

  • Also called thermal or blackbody spectra

  • Spectra of stars, planets, moons

  • Depends on temperature

    Ex: sunlight passing through a prism


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Continuous Spectrum composition of an object, its temperature, its density and its motion. continued

Hotter objects

Shift toward this end

Longer wavelength

Shorter wavelength

Cooler objects

Shift toward this end


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Discrete Spectrum composition of an object, its temperature, its density and its motion. Absorption

Each element has a unique signature of absorption lines. That pattern helps scientists identify the element(s).

Ex: stars, planets w/ atmospheres, & galaxies

Spectra

Cool, thin gas

Absorption

spectrum

Hot object


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Discreet spectrum- composition of an object, its temperature, its density and its motion. Emission

Again, the pattern of the lines determines the identity of the element.

Ex: comets, nebula

& certain stars

Cold, empty space

Thin,hot

gas

Emission

spectrum

Spectra


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Motion of Objects in Space composition of an object, its temperature, its density and its motion.

Compare the dark lines in the middle spectra to

the dark lines in the other two spectra.

Blue shift shows object is

moving toward the observer.

This shows the normal position or no motion.

This shows a red shift meaning that the object is moving away from the observer.


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Spectroscopy Lab composition of an object, its temperature, its density and its motion.

Determining the Spectra

of Certain Elements


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Test your understanding... composition of an object, its temperature, its density and its motion.


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What type of spectra composition of an object, its temperature, its density and its motion. is shown here?

  • Continuous

  • Absorption

  • Emission


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What type of spectra composition of an object, its temperature, its density and its motion. is shown here?

  • Continuous

  • Absorption

  • Emission



Light is just one portion of the electromagnetic spectrum name 5 other parts of the em spectrum l.jpg
Light is just one portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. of light?Name 5 other parts of the EM spectrum.


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Acknowledgements of light?

  • www.ipac.caltech.edu/Outreach/Edu/Spectra/spec.html

  • www.astronomynotes.com/lights4.htm

  • http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/spacecraft/instruments-cassini-cirs.cfm

  • http://pmo-sun.uoregon.edu/~astrosites.html

  • http://marsrovers.nasa.gov/overview


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No way! Were you sleeping? of light?

Back to question #1


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YES, we have a winner! of light?

To next question….


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Pat yourself on the back! of light?

Next question


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That is a definite NO! of light?

Back to 2nd question


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