Oxygenation
Download
1 / 35

Oxygenation Unit Eight Respiratory system - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 399 Views
  • Updated On :

Oxygenation Unit Eight Respiratory system Oxygen: a clear, odorless gas that constitutes approximately 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell. Respiration: is the process of gas exchange between individual and the environment.

Related searches for Oxygenation Unit Eight Respiratory system

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Oxygenation Unit Eight Respiratory system' - bernad


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Oxygenation l.jpg

Oxygenation

Unit Eight



Slide3 l.jpg


The process of respiration involves several components l.jpg
The process of respiration involves several components: 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell.

  • Pulmonary ventilation: the movement of air between the atmosphere and alveoli of the lungs.

  • Diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveoli and capillaries.

  • Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide via blood to tissues.

  • Diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between capillaries and cell.


Functions of pulmonary system l.jpg
Functions of pulmonary system: 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell.

  • Ventilation: is the movement of air in and out of the lung.

  • Respiration: is the process of gas exchange.


Manifestations of altered respiratory function l.jpg
Manifestations of Altered Respiratory Function 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell.

  • Cough

  • Sputum Production

  • Shortness of Breath

  • Chest Pain

  • Abnormal Breath Sounds

  • Accessory Muscle Use

  • Cyanosis

  • Clubbing fingers.


Anatomy and physiology of respiratory system l.jpg
Anatomy and physiology of respiratory system: 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell.

  • 1) Upper respiratory tract:

  • a) Nose – made of cartilage and bone and is designed to warm, moisten, and filter air as it comes into the system.

  • b) Pharynx – (throat) conducts food and air.


Slide8 l.jpg
Cont 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell.

  • C) Larynx – (voice box) connects the pharynx and the trachea; made of cartilage; contains vocal cords.

  • D) Epiglottis – flap of tissue that covers trachea; ensures food travels down the esophagus.


Slide10 l.jpg

Alveolar sac 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell.

Alveoli


Slide11 l.jpg
Cont 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell.

  • 2) Lower Respiratory tract:

  • Trachea – (windpipe) tubular passage way for air; carries air to the lungs, C-shaped cartilage rings, divides at end.

  • Bronchi – pair of tubes that branch from trachea and enter lungs; have cartilage, lining is ciliated & secretes mucus.

  • Bronchioles – tiny tubes lacking cartilage and cilia; possess smooth muscle


Slide12 l.jpg

  • Alveoli 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell. – cup shaped structures at the end of the bronchioles that resemble bunches of grapes; are in direct contact with capillaries (gas exchange); covered with SURFACTANT that prevent alveoli from collapsing.

  • Lungs – paired, cone-shaped organs that are surrounded by a pleural membrane, made of elastic tissue, and divided into lobes


Mechanics of breathing l.jpg
Mechanics of Breathing 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell.

  • Inhaling (active process) – Air moves in. Why?

  • Gases move from an area of high pressure to low pressure

  • During inspiration – diaphragm pulls down and lungs expand

  • When lungs expand, it increase the volume, which decrease the pressure inside lungs


Slide14 l.jpg


Respiration l.jpg
Respiration: in.

  • Exchange of O2 and CO2 between alveoli and blood

  • Partial pressure of O2 higher in alveoli than blood so O2 diffuses into blood

  • Partial pressure of CO2 higher in blood than alveoli, so CO2 moves into alveoli in opposite direction and gets exhaled out


Internal respiration l.jpg
Internal respiration in.

  • Internal respiration is exchange of O2 and CO2 between blood and tissues

  • Pressure of O2 higher in blood than tissues so O2 gets release into tissues.

  • Pressure of CO2 higher in tissue than in blood so CO2 diffused in opposite direction into blood.

  • CO2 Is a waste product.

  • O2 Is used in cellular respiration


3 muscle groups of inhalation l.jpg
3 Muscle Groups of Inhalation in.

  • Diaphragm:

    • contraction draws air into lungs

    • 75% of normal air movement

  • External intercostals muscles:

    • assist inhalation

    • 25% of normal air movement

  • Accessory muscles assist in elevating ribs:

    • sternocleidomastiod

    • serratus anterior

    • pectoralis minor

    • scalene muscles


Control of breathing l.jpg
Control of Breathing in.

  • Breathing is regulated by the rhythmicity center in the medulla and pons in brain stem.

  • Carotid body is sensitive to level of oxygen.

  • medulla  rate and depth of breathing



Factor effecting oxygenation l.jpg
Factor effecting oxygenation in.:

  • Environment: high altitude increase respiratory rate.

  • Exercise: physical exercise lead to increase respiratory rate.

  • Life style: smoking, occupation.

  • Health status: disease of cardiovascular disease.

  • Narcotics: morphine decrease respiratory rate.

  • Stress and anxiety.


Slide23 l.jpg

  • Respiratory alteration: in.

  • Hypoxia: is condition of insufficient oxygen anywhere in the body from the inspired gas to the tissue. Cerebral function can tolerate hypoxia for only 3 to 5 min before permanent damage.


Slide24 l.jpg

Sign of hypoxia: in.

  • Rapid pulse.

  • Rapid shallow respiration.

  • Increase restlessness.

  • Flaring nares.

  • Cyanosis.


Slide25 l.jpg


Altered breathing pattern l.jpg
Altered breathing pattern: hypoxia may result from disease of respiratory muscle, drug, and anesthesia.

  • Breathing pattern: rate, volume, rhythm, effort of respiration.

  • Normal respiration: (Eupnea) quite, rhythmic and effortless.

  • Tachypnea: rapid rate is seen with fevers, metabolic acidosis, pain and Hypercabnia.

  • Bradypnea: slow respiration rate, seen with narcotics and increase intracranial pressure from brain injury.


Slide27 l.jpg


Slide28 l.jpg


Assessment l.jpg
Assessment the lung.

  • Nursing history:

  • Respiratory problem, cardiac problem, life style, cough and sputum.

  • Physical assessment:

  • Inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation.


Slide30 l.jpg

  • Diagnostic studies: the lung.

  • Sputum specimen, throat culture, arterial blood gases.

  • X- Ray examination.

  • Bronchoscopy and laryngoscopy.

  • Pulse oximetry: non invasive device measuring oxygen saturation.


Slide31 l.jpg

  • Sputum collected for the following reason: the lung.

  • Culture and sensitivity: for identify a specific microorganism.

  • Cytology: to identify the origin, structure, function and pathology cell.

  • Acid bacillus: to identify the presence of tuberculosis.


Nursing diagnosis l.jpg
Nursing diagnosis: the lung.

  • Ineffective air way clearance related to accumulation of secretion.

  • Ineffective breathing pattern related to dyspnea.

  • Altered tissue perfusion related to decrease cardiac out put.

  • Anxiety related to ineffective air way clearance.


Slide33 l.jpg

  • Implementation: the lung.

  • Positioning the client to allow to maximum chest expansion.

  • Encourage frequent changes in position.

  • Encourage ambulating.

  • Deep breathing exercise and coughing.

  • Hydration to maintain moisturing of respiratory tract mucous membrane and easily to move respiratory secretion and decease incidence of infection.


Oxygen administration l.jpg
Oxygen Administration the lung.

  • 1: Nasal Cannula.

  • 2: Face Mask.

  • 3: Oxygen Tent (for children).

  • 4: Venturi Mask.

  • 5: Non rebreather Mask.

  • 6: Partial Rebreather Mask.

  • 7: Endotracheal Tube (ETT).


The end l.jpg
The End the lung.

Good Luck


ad