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National Ambient Air Monitoring Networks. Now and Later. PM model evaluation workshop. Also troubling is the delineated use of measurements and modeled predictions. …..Measurements are the current tool for strict regulatory applications, and models are used as a planning tool.

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National Ambient Air Monitoring Networks

Now and Later

PM model evaluation workshop


Also troubling is the delineated use of measurements and modeled predictions.

…..Measurements are the current tool for strict regulatory applications, and models are used as a planning tool.

………The reality is that measurements really are just estimates of surrounding reality, and in one sense no different from a predictive output from a model.

……. Both these tools need to be more effectively merged to support in unity a host of regulatory and planning applications.


Topics

  • Current networks…routine

  • Anticipated changes

  • Overview of incommensurability and artifact issues

  • Supersites


National Level Routine Networks…S/L/T’s, EPA

  • PM2.5: FRM, cont., spec (trends (daily), SIP, IMPROVE, SS); >1000 sites

  • PM10 >1000 sites

  • O3 > 1000 sites

  • NOx/NO (NO2) > 400

  • SO2 > 400

  • CO > 400

  • Pb > 400

  • O3 precursors, PAMS >70 sites

  • S, N deposition, CASTNET, > 50 sites


2000-2002 3-Year Average Annual Mean PM2.5

Data from AQS 7/9/03. Sites that operated anytime 2000-2002 (n=1239)


Urban and Rural PM2.5 Speciation Networks

Active Sites as of 1/20/04: EPA data from AQS, IMPROVE data from VIEWS


Supersites IRD Study Domain

Southeastern Canada

New York

Pittsburgh

Baltimore

Fresno

St. Louis

Los Angeles

Atlanta

Houston

Phase I

Phase II

Both Phases


8

SS

~ 54 Trends

~175 SIPs

~150 IMPROVE

Routine

Speciation

~ 1050 FRMs

~ 200 cont.

Mass Sampling

PM2.5 Networks


Don’t believe it


Areas with PAMS Networks

  • PAMS areas

  • Type #2 site

  • Type #1, #3, #4 site


Air Toxics Monitoring Network: Pilot sites and proposed trend sites


Comments on Historical Routine Networks

  • Adequate ground level spatial coverage

    • Especially PM2.5 mass, ozone

  • But,

    • Aerosols (mass and species)

      • too much reliance on integrated techniques providing no diurnal characterization

    • Criteria gases

      • Except for ozone and NO, many meaningless measurements

        • Trace levels, source oriented/microscale siting (CO, SO2)


Comments on Historical Routine Networks, cont.

  • But,

    • Other gases

      • NOy….very limited

      • True NO2..?

      • VOCs…mostly ozone season through PAMS

      • Other precursors and indicators

        • Nitric acid and ammonia….episodic/intensive programs only

        • Peroxides, hydroxyl radical….intensive programs only

    • Artifacts/problems….later

    • Very limited multiple pollutant sites

      • Act of convenience rather than design


Changes expected from Implementing National Monitoring Strategy


National Core Network: NCORE

PM

O3

  • Goal: Move from loosely tied single-pollutant networks to coordinated, highly leveraged multi-pollutant networks with real time reporting capability

NADP

PAMS

PM

CO

PM

IMPROVE

CASTNET

PM

O3

SO2

Toxics

Instill order and communication


Principal Data Objectives of NCore

I’d like to say…………

“Characterize air quality as efficiently as possible in time, space and composition (physical and chemical properties)”

Since any data use or objective relies on a fundamental characterization and benefits by enhancement….


Principal Data Objectives of NCore

  • Public Information

    • Real-time Input of Data From Across the Country Using Continuous Technologies

    • Spatial Mapping (E.G., AIRNOW), Health Advisories

  • Health/Exposure Assessment Support

    • Input for Periodic NAAQS Reviews

  • Emissions Strategy Planning (Emphasis on Initial Timeframe)

    • What are the best emission reduction approaches?

    • Provide DATA for Routine Model Evaluation and Source Attribution

  • Air Quality Trends and Program Accountability

    • Do measured data confirm strategies are working?

    • Major National Initiatives (Acid Rain, Clear Skies, NOx SIPS, FMVCP)

    • Including HAPS (National) and Visibility Assessments

  • Science Support

    • Backbone for More Diagnostic Level Work (Same for Local Sips), Health Studies

  • NAAQS Determinations and Related Regulatory Rqmts.

    • Emphasis on More Pervasive Ozone and PM2.5


NCore Measurements

L2

Level 3

Level 1. 3-10 Master Sites Comprehensive Measurements, Advance Methods Serving Science and Technology Transfer Needs

Level 2: ~ 75Multi-pollutant (MP) Sites,“Core Species” Plus Leveraging From PAMS,

Speciation Program, Air Toxics

L1

Level 3: Minimum Single Pollutant Sites (e.g.> 500 sites each for O3 and PM2.5 and related spatial

Mapping Support

Minimum “Core” Level 2 Measurements

Continuous NO,NOy,SO2,CO, PM2.5, PM10/PMc,O3,Meteorology (T,RH,WS,WD); Integrated PM2.5 FRM, HNO3, NH3,


Siting Approach – Level 2

  • Balance between functional design (best locations) and logistical concerns (national equity, capable agencies)

  • Step 1….Assume ~ 50 major U.S. cities provide variety for health scientists….long term epidemiological studies

  • Step 2….Identify important rural/regional gaps for model evaluation

  • Step 3….Leverage existing infrastructure (Speciation/IMPROVE and CASTNET networks; PAMS, air toxics NATTS)

  • Step 4…provide siting and implementation oversight

    • ???


23

21

18

14

15

3

1

2

7

6

16

4

19

17

8

13

5

10

9

12

11

20

24

Proposed Siting Approach – Level 2…

Health meets atmospheric sciences

Suggested Rural Locations for Level 2 Sites

Transport, Corridor, Background and Inflow Locations


Urban & Rural PM2.5 Speciation Networks

Current/Planned

Supplemental Information


Today

Core

Spec

PAMS

Toxics

Core

PM Spec

PAMS

Core

Spec

Toxics

Core +

PM spec

Core

Future

Directions

Air Toxic

Monitoring

Visibility –

IMPROVE &

Regional Haze

Ozone –

PAMS

Fine Particles –

PM2.5

Chemical Speciation

Inhalable Particles –

PM10

Acid Deposition–

CASTNet

NADP


NCore: Further Integration & Optimization

  • NOAA/NASA Satellite Data

    • Global/Continental transport

  • Other Networks: Deposition, Ecosystems

  • Intensive/diagnostic Field Programs

    Longer Term Goal:

  • Integrated Observation-modeling Complex

    • Similar to Meteorological Models (FDDA)

      • Model Adjustments Through Obs.

      • All in Near Real Time

      • Full Delivery of Model Dimensions

        • (Space, Time, Chemistry, Physical Properties)


Recent efforts fostering NCORE implementation

  • Air toxics NATTS (trend sites) at PM2.5 speciation locations

  • Addition of aethalometers to NATTS

  • Joint OAQPS-OAP (within OAR) test program at CASTNET site(s)

  • Additional flexibility in use of STAG (e.g., PM2.5) funds to support more precursor and indicator measurements

  • RPO initiatives….


Issue

  • ? Funding for Level 1 sites


Introduction to measurement…Modeling ……………..incommensurabilities and other issues

  • Spatial representation

    • Volumetric (model) versus point representation (measurement)

    • Breathing level measurements….most of mass often elevated

  • Measurement Artifacts

    • Model attempts to characterize reality relative to true ambient properties, and natural removal processes (e.g., deposition to land/water/foliage)

    • Measurements techniques alter ambient properties (heating, dehumidification), and removal processes (changing concentration gradients) within sampler universe


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