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Internet publishing Ing. Petr Zámostný, Ph.D. místnost: A-72a tel.: 4222 e-mail: petr.zamostny @ vscht.cz Syllabus 1. Introduction – web servers and web browsers 2. HTML – basic page structure 3. HTML – basic constructions, data transfers via FTP 4. HTML - forms 5. CSS

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Internet publishing l.jpg

Internet publishing

Ing. Petr Zámostný, Ph.D.místnost: A-72atel.: 4222e-mail: [email protected]


Syllabus l.jpg
Syllabus

  • 1. Introduction – web servers and web browsers

  • 2. HTML – basic page structure

  • 3. HTML – basic constructions, data transfers via FTP

  • 4. HTML - forms

  • 5. CSS

  • 6. CSS vs. HTML comparison

  • 7. JavaScript - basics

  • 8. Graphical data and multimedia - formats (GIF, PNG, JPEG), usage

  • 9. Usability - homepage

  • 10. Usability - navigation, search, JavaScript

  • 11. Usability – web design for handicapped users (lowered sight or movement capabilities, older persons, etc.)

  • 12. Anonymity of internet users, personal data protection, spam

  • 13. Legal and moral aspects - quotation, referring, responsibility for published content

  • 14. Presentation of created projects

http://www.vscht.cz/informatika-chemie


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What is needed to pass the exam

  • Project – make your own website

  • Evaluation of third-party website

    • Choose preffered form

      • One-page written text

      • 5-10 min presentation


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Project

  • Compulsory requirements

    • Structured document

    • At least 3 separate documents

    • XHTML or HTML 4.01 standards

    • Valid documents (http://validator.w3.org).

    • Use external CSS.

    • Use some graphics in separate folder.

    • Make it available at http://web.vscht.cz/…

  • Recommended features

    • Minimize XHTML attributes formatting, use CSS instead.

    • Follow recommendations for making the pages accessible by handicapped users (http://www.w3.org/WAI/quicktips/).


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Website evaluation

  • Technical quality

  • Navigation – placement, usability, logic, ...

  • Content, information value

    • Comprehensibility

    • Use of hypertext

    • Readability

    • Structure – is there clear hierarchy of presented information (chapters, lists, tables)?

  • Language

    • Grammar

    • Composition

    • Objectivity

  • Graphics, design:

    • Font size

    • Colors, contrast, readability

    • Design quality

    • Impact of screen resolution, page weight

    • Impression (subjective)


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Information sources

  • Information systém on ICT

    • http://student.vscht.cz

  • Materials for seminars

    • http://www.vscht.cz/kot/cz/studijni-materialy.html

  • Webdesign

    • Jakob Nielsen: Web design

  • WWW standards

    • http://www.w3.org/


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History of WWW

  • 1950 – Douglas Engelbert – interlinked documents

  • 1980 – Ted Nelson – „Xanadu“ project

  • 1989 – CERN - Tim Berners-Lee

    • Software for developing hypertext documents

    • Term „World-Wide Web“

    • Internet infrastructure

    • HTML, HTTP, URL technologies


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WWW – key principles

  • File (document) transfer, HTTP protocol

  • Global document address - URL

  • Hypertext, HTML


World wide web l.jpg

Browser

HTTP protocol handling

Content parsing, displaying

Content storage

Static

Dynamic

World-Wide Web

WWW server

HTTP request - URL

Client

HTTP response - document


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Uniform Resource Locator

  • http://www.vscht.cz/seznam/SeznamVSCHT/index.html


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Scheme 1/2

  • http://

    • http://www.vscht.cz/kot/cz/index.html

    • HyperText Transfer protocol

  • ftp://

    • ftp://ftp.vscht.cz/pub/antivir/Blaster/FixBlast.exe

    • File Transfer Protocol

  • file:///

    • file:///c|/windows/win.ini

    • Local file

  • mailto:


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Scheme 2/2

  • Scheme isimportant

    • ftp://ftp.vscht.cz/pub/antivir/Blaster/FixBlast.exe

    • http://ftp.vscht.cz/pub/antivir/Blaster/FixBlast.exe

    • http://ifis.vscht.cz/

    • https://ifis.vscht.cz/

  • Browserscomplete missing scheme, so that it works in most cases


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Server

  • IP address

    • http://147.33.2.8/

  • Domain name

    • http://3rdlevel.2ndlevel.1stlevel

    • http://www.vscht.cz

    • http://student.vscht.cz

    • Each domain has own registrar that controls domain names asignment

Řád domény


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Location (path)

  • Corresponds to the real or the virtual location of the document in the server file system

    • Paths are case-sensitive

      • http://www.vscht.cz/homepage

      • http://www.vscht.Cz/homepage

      • http://www.vscht.cz/Homepage


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Static

File system

Permanent documents

Represent static non-specific information

Dynamic

Database

Documents are generated dynamically

Documents are created specifically according to the user requirements

Content

http://www.google.com/search?q=internet

http://www.vscht.cz/informatika-chemie


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Browser manages transfers and interprets the content

Common browsers

Microsoft Internet Explorer

Opera

Mozilla Firefox

Safari

Browser


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Webpage

  • Webpage – document (file) containing text data and formatting instructions

  • The formatting instructions are interpreted by the browser

  • Standards – a way to ensure the browsers will understand the formatting instructions

    • W3C – World Wide Web Consortium

    • http://www.w3.org/


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What does make a webpage?

  • HyperText Markup Language – HTML

    • Text

    • Tags

      • Formatting instructions

      • Information about the document structure

    • References to other data (binary)

<html>

<head>

<title>Title of page</title>

</head>

<body>

This is my first homepage. <b>This text is bold</b>

</body>

</html>


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HTML versions and development

  • Markup language SGML

    • Standard Generalized Markup Language ISO 8879:1986

  • 2.0 – the first standardized version

  • 3.0 – unimplemented design

    • Specifications were too difficult for browser developers

  • 3.2 – Standardized as subset of 3.0 design + selected browser-specific features that were already implemented by browser developers

  • 4.0, 4.01 – final version

    • Cascading style sheets(CSS) used for formatting


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    Recent web problems

    • Mixing content and format in HTML

    • Poor documents structure

    • Difficult search for specific information

    • Potential remedy = XML


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    XML

    • eXtensible Markup Language

    • SGML „light“

    • Can be used as standard to define other languages based on XML

    • Can create content oriented structure

    • More strict syntax than SGML

      • = much easier implementation


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    XHTML

    • eXtensible HyperText Markup Language

    • HTML 4.01 restandardized to follow XML rules

      • Meets XML standard specifications

      • But does not require full XML support by the browser

      • More strict


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    Web pages development/coding

    • Text processors

      • Notepad, PSPad

    • HTML editors

      • HomeSite

    • WYSIWYG editors

      • FrontPage





    Readable html code l.jpg
    Readable HTML code


    Less readable html code l.jpg
    Lessreadable“ HTML code


    Editors comparison l.jpg
    Editors comparison

    • WYSIWYG

      • Relatively easy operation

      • „Precise“ control of appearance, but poor platform independence

      • Problems with standard compatibility

      • Document is not created transparently – code cannot be fully controlled

      • Documents contain editor-specific markup


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    Editors comparison

    • Text and HTML editors

      • Require active knowledge of standards

      • Full control over the code

      • Page development may seem more time-consuming than with the WYSIWYG editors, but it is not true for an experienced coder


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