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Models of creativity in language and music. Anna Jordanous Music Informatics Research Centre, University of Sussex. Introducing my research…. I write computer programs that model musical creativity AIM: Capture the key aspects of how the human mind works when we create music.

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Models of creativity in language and music

Models of creativity in language and music

Anna Jordanous

Music Informatics Research Centre, University of Sussex


Introducing my research
Introducing my research…

I write computer programs that model musical creativity

AIM: Capture the key aspects of how the human mind works when we create music

Existing theories about creativity and the mind (fortunately!)…

Margaret Boden

Arthur Koestler

Mihalyi Csikzentmihalyi

…and plenty of computer systems that generate music…

In Google Scholar, the phrase “Music generation” returns 960 results

…but virtually nothing on linking theory to practice

(which is where my work comes in)

N.B. Not databases!

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


Today s talk
Today’s talk

People show creativity when using language.

People show creativity when using music.

There is a strong overlap between music and language

What can creativity in language tell us about musical creativity?

Music

Language

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


Human creativity in action
Human creativity in action

(etc)

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


Overlap between language and music
Overlap between language and music

“Within our minds are two systems that perform remarkably similar interpretive feats, converting complex acoustic sequences into perceptually discrete elements (such as words or chords) organized into hierarchical structures that convey rich meanings”

Patel (2008) Music, Language and the Brain

Models of Creativity in Language and Music



Speech music
Speech music

Slides from Chris Darwin’s course

(Perception of Musical Sounds)

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


So what if there s a crossover between language and music
So what if there’s a crossover between language and music?

Some areas are more studied in one domain than the other (e.g. Grammar in language)

Other areas are studied from different perspectives (e.g. Meaning)

What happens if we take research from one domain – LANGUAGE – and apply it to the other – MUSIC?

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


A starting point haiku
A starting point: Haiku

Haiku generation program

(Masterman (1971) in Boden 1990)

[1][2] in the [3]

I [4] [5] [6] in the [7]

[8] the [9] has [10]

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


Haiku
Haiku

Which was generated by a computer?

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


Music s equivalent to haiku mozart s dice music
Music’s equivalent to Haiku:Mozart’s Dice Music

Musical fragments put together at random (by rolling dice)

Demo…

http://sunsite.univie.ac.at/Mozart/dice/collaborate.cgi?tables=yes

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


Haikus and dice music
Haikus and Dice Music

  • Are these programs being creative?

  • Do they model human creativity? At all?

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


Saxophone meets computer
Saxophone meets computer

Paul Hodgson’s IMPROVISOR

A computer program that can mimic musical style and improvise in real time

1998: On BBC’s Tomorrow’s World program, IMPROVISOR jams with Courtney Pine, a famous saxophonist [review]

(IMPROVISOR plays in the style of Charlie Parker: bebop jazz)

Courtney Pine

Charlie Parker

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


Saxophone meets computer1
Saxophone meets computer

Q Is IMPROVISOR more creative than the Dice Music program?

Q Does IMPROVISOR model human musical creativity more closely than the Dice Music program?

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


Creativity through analysis
Creativity through Analysis

Chomsky: By studying the structure of language, we can capture this structure (in a grammar) and use that to generate new language

Several attempts to capture musical structure:

  • Lerdahl and Jackendoff 1983

  • Steedman 1984

  • Jordanous 2006, 2007 (shameless self-plug)

  • etc

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


Cope experiments in musical intelligence emi
Cope: Experiments in Musical Intelligence (EMI)

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


Emi with cope
EMI with Cope

Q How much of EMI’s creativity is due to David Cope’s creativity?

N.B. EMI compositions are credited to:

David Cope with Experiments in Musical Intelligence

Q Does EMI act as a model of David Cope’s creativity? Or of human musical creativity in composition?

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


What does emi produce
What does EMI produce?

EMI descriptions and sound files at:

http://arts.ucsc.edu/faculty/cope/

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


Emi without cope
EMI without Cope?

Chris Thornton’s MUSER

Still uses analysis of musical pieces to subdivide music into fragments

But...

Instead of using SPEAC coding and musicology, MUSER uses statistical analysis

Demo at:

http://www.christhornton.eu/

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


N gram analysis
N-gram analysis

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


Story telling
Story-telling

James Meehan produced the seminal story‐telling program TALE‐SPIN in 1976

TALE‐SPIN stories describe the plans that a main character makes to achieve a goal

TALE-SPIN has been highly influential in the design of later story-telling programs, e.g. Scott Turner’s MINSTREL (1991), Brinsjord & Ferruci’s BRUTUS (2000)

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


An example tale spin story
An example TALE-SPIN story

ONCE UPON A TIME GEORGE ANT LIVED NEAR A PATCH OF GROUND. THERE WAS A NEST IN AN ASH TREE. WILMA BIRD LIVED IN THE NEST. THERE WAS SOME WATER IN A RIVER. WILMA KNEW THAT THE WATER WAS IN THE RIVER. GEORGE KNEW THAT THE WATER WAS IN THE RIVER.

ONE DAY GEORGE WAS VERY THIRSTY. GEORGE WANTED TO GET NEAR SOME WATER. GEORGE WALKED FROM HIS PATCH OF GROUND ACROSS THE MEADOW THROUGH THE VALLEY TO A RIVER BANK. GEORGE FELL INTO THE WATER.

GEORGE WANTED TO GET NEAR THE VALLEY. GEORGE COULDN’T GET NEAR THE VALLEY. GEORGE WANTED TO GET NEAR THE MEADOW. GEORGE COULDN’T GET NEAR THE MEADOW.

WILMA WANTED GEORGE TO GET NEAR THE MEADOW. WILMA WANTED TO GET NEAR GEORGE. WILMA GRABBED GEORGE WITH HER CLAW. WILMA TOOK GEORGE FROM THE RIVER THROUGH THE VALLEY TO THE MEADOW. GEORGE WAS DEVOTED TO WILMA. GEORGE OWED EVERYTHING TO WILMA. WILMA LET GO OF GEORGE. GEORGE FELL TO THE MEADOW.

THE END.

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


Story telling1
Story-telling

TALE‐SPIN’s stories can appear simplistic due to the relatively basic natural language generation techniques used at the time.

However, the underlying mechanisms involved in generating the story are more complex.

TALE‐SPIN has been given knowledge on how to solve various problems. It solves problems using planning techniques. These techniques can incorporate social characteristics and interaction between characters such as X is deceitful or Y likes Z.

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


Tale spin music spin
Tale-Spin -> Music-Spin

Sadly the original code for TALE‐SPIN has been lost, however a ‘MICRO‐TALE‐SPIN’ version exists, written by Meehan in 1981

My aim is to extend MICRO‐TALE‐SPIN to be able to generate music

Models of Creativity in Language and Music



What do i hope to achieve with music spin
What do I hope to achieve with Music-Spin?

Write a program that makes music!

But more importantly, write a program that makes music by mimicking human cognition

Use a cross-disciplinary approach to study musical creativity from a different perspective – hopefully will be able to make more general conclusions

Q Do people write music the same way they write stories?

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


Summary
Summary

Music and language cross over in many ways

People are creative in their use of both music and language

Music and language have often been combined in research (e.g. Patel, Steedman, Lerdahl and Jackendoff, Bernstein, etc etc)

Studying musical creativity using linguistic creativity – for a wider perspective on creativity in general

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


That s all folks
That’s all,folks

Models of Creativity in Language and Music


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