MGTO120s Understanding Human Behavior. Jian Liang MGTO, HKUST. Where We Are . Management . Basic Concepts (Ch1). Basic Concepts (Ch1). Basic Concepts (Ch1). Organize (Ch10,11 & 13) . Organize (Ch 10, 11,12,13) . Retrospect (ch2). Retrospect (ch2). Retrospect
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LearningPsychological Factors Affecting Behavior
Cognitive ComponentThe opinion or belief segment of an attitude.
Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events.
Affective ComponentThe emotional or feeling segment of an attitude.
Behavioral Intention An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
Job SatisfactionA collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job.
Job InvolvementIdentifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth.
Organizational CommitmentIdentifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization.
Mean Score of the Work Centrality Index in Japan, USA and Germany
Note: Adapted from MOW, 1987, p83.
The good Samaritan study
Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions.
Behavior directed toward leaving the organization.
Passively waiting for conditions to improve.
Allowing conditions to worsen.
Small thinking: How can we explain the change of job satisfaction?
Expatriates in China earn 20 to 50 times what the local Chinese earn (Leung, Smith, Wang, & Sun, 1996) and, in some cases, the housing allowance of a foreign employee is more than the salary of a local employee of similar rank (DeLisle & Chin, 1994:19).
Image a local HR manager, who provide such offering package to expatiates, will he has any dissonance? How to reduce it?
Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization.
Chun Wo Holdings Limited
ExtroversionSociable, gregarious, and assertive
AgreeablenessGood-natured, cooperative, and trusting.
ConscientiousnessResponsible, dependable, persistent, and organized.
Emotional StabilityCalm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative).
Openness to ExperienceImaginativeness, artistic, sensitivity, and intellectualism.
-Impersonal, objective, logical judgments
-Rely on argumentation and objective criteria
-60% of all men
-Subjective, personal judgments
-Good at persuasion
-60% of all women
The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate.
InternalsIndividuals who believe that they control what happens to them.
ExternalsIndividuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.
Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves.
A personality trait that measures an individuals ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.
Personality-Job Fit Theory (Holland)
Identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover.
Which kind of person are you?
What Do You See?
When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.
Consider this chain of events.
If you get 65 percent, how to interpret the result? What if 95 percent?
Consensus: do all or only a few people respond to the stimulus in the same way as the target person?
Distinctiveness: does the target person respond in the same way to other stimuli as well?
Consistency: does the target person always respond in the same way to this stimulus?
People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes.
Assuming that others are more like us than they actually are.
Judging someone on the basis of our perception of a group he or she is a part of.
Forming a general impression of a person on the basis of a single characteristic of that person
How are people biased at the workplace?