Lung ventilation during treadmill locomotion in a terrestrial turtle, Terrapene carolina. Landberg, T., Mailhot, J.D., Brainerd, E.L. “Lung ventilation during treadmill locomotion in a terrestrial turtle, Terrapene carolina. ” Journal of Experimental Biology . 206 (2003): 3391-3404.
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Lung ventilation during treadmill locomotion in a terrestrial turtle, Terrapene carolina
Landberg, T., Mailhot, J.D., Brainerd, E.L. “Lung ventilation during treadmill locomotion in a terrestrial turtle, Terrapene carolina.” Journal of Experimental Biology. 206 (2003): 3391-3404.
Two main breathing mechanisms
1. Action of oblique (OA) and transverse abdominis (TA), diaphragmaticus, and striatum pulmonale muscles
TA and OA alternate bilateral muscle activity to produce exhalation-inhalation breathing cycles at rest
TA and OA considered primary ventilation mechansim for turtles
present in all extant species
active consistently during lung ventilation
2. Limb-pump ventilation mechanism
Limbs and girdles contribute to ventilation and redistribution of air into lungs
Muscles of pectoral/pelvic limbs and girdles are active during ventilation at rest as well as during limb movement during locomotion
If these muscles are used for both breathing and locomotion, then locomotion may either interfere or assist breathing.
Respiratory and locomotor functions of vertebrates often highly integrated
Many vertebrates couple breathing and locomotion
Goals of this study were to determine whether T. carolina breathes during locomotion
Does locomotion alter breathing performance
Are ventilation and locomotion temporally coupled
Are airflow rates directly affected by stride cycle
Are lung ventilation mechanisms the same as in resting animals
Information about breathing performance during locomotion may help interpret evolution of lung ventilation mechanisms in relation to turtle’s unique morphology
X-ray recordings tracked movement of inguinal flanks during breathing
Determine whether abdominal muscles are mechanism for breathing during locomotion
At rest and locomotion: exhalation accompanied by dorsal movement of the marker; inhalation accompanied by ventral movement of the marker
Inguinal flanks move in phase with ventilatory cycle and indepently from stride cycle