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Leisure and Well-Being Model - Carruthers & Hood, 2007Hood & Carruthers, 20...


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Leisure and Well-Being Model

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Leisure and Well-Being Model

Carruthers & Hood, 2007Hood & Carruthers, 2007

KNR 273


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Carruthers & Hood….Theoretical Background

  • Paradigm shift in health & human services

    • Past: Deficit reduction/amelioration of problems

    • Eliminating problems alone does not result in healthy people (or communities)

    • New: Cultivating strengths & capacities of individuals (& institutions & society)


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Carruthers & Hood….Theoretical Background

  • While relief of distress will always be important in therapy, cultivation of strengths & quality of life is also essential

  • Development of positive assets & strengths may prevent problematic behaviors

    • p. 277


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Carruthers & Hood….Theoretical Background

  • Supported by:

    • World Health Organization

    • Positive psychology

    • Strengths-based practice

    • Leisure theory

    • Ecological perspective

      • Developing individual capacities & context and resources outside the individual


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Carruthers & Hood….Theoretical Background

  • Long term outcomes (distal goal)

    • Well-being

      • Defined: “A state of successful, satisfying, and productive engagement with one’s life and the realization of one’s full physical, cognitive, and social-emotional potential” (p. 280)

    • Leisure is a means to end (well-being)


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Carruthers & Hood….Theoretical Background

  • “This [well-being] is particularly relevant when working with clients who have disabilities or chronic illness in that these conditions are not likely to be ‘cured.’ However, people can learn to create the best life possible by maximizing their capacity in multiple domains of life and realizing their potential in many of these domains.”

    • p.283

    • Does not specify specific groups (Hood & Carruthers, 2007)


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Carruthers & Hood….Theoretical Background

  • Many factors that contribute to well-being

    • 2 that are most appropriate for TR intervention

      • Increasing positive emotion, affect, & experiences on a daily basis

      • Cultivation & expression of one’s full potential, including strengths, capacities & assets

        • p. 281


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Carruthers & Hood….Theoretical Background

  • Proximal outcomes (medial goals)

    • Leisure experience

      • Places great importance on experiencing leisure to develop resources & well-being

      • TR professionals need to understand leisure & pursue leisure experiences that enhance their well-being

      • Leisure can enhance positive experiences & emotion

    • Resources (capacities & assets)


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Carruthers & Hood….Theoretical Background

  • “Therapeutic recreation provided in both community and clinical settings may be a context for the provision of important resource development opportunities.”

    • p.283

    • Does not specify service settings (Hood & Carruthers, 2007)


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Carruthers & Hood….Theoretical Background

  • Well-being can be developed in response to adversity

    • Adapt by developing new resources or strengthening old resources

    • Transform a negative event into a positive, life-renewing lesson & experience personal growth

      • Post traumatic growth

      • Turning points

        • Over time or intensive change after a significant positive or negative life event


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Carruthers & Hood….Theoretical Background

  • Relationship with clients

    • Egalitarian

    • Clients are active, equal agents of change in their own lives

    • Collaborative using respective expertise

      • Client is expert on own lives

      • Therapists is expert in therapeutic practice

    • Therapist encourages hope & change, validates client’s experiences, supports client


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Hood & Carruthers…Practice Guide

  • 2 mechanisms to develop well-being (proximal/medial)

    • Increase value of leisure in building resources, creating positive emotion, cultivating one’s potential

    • Provide psycho-educational interventions that facilitate resource development

    • These 2 “thrusts” of service may occur sequentially or simultaneously


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Hood & Carruthers…Practice Guide

  • Developing resources

    • Can be facilitated through

      • Leisure

      • Psycho-educational interventions

      • Therapeutic relationship

      • Advocacy


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Hood & Carruthers…Practice Guide

  • 5 broad categories of resources

    • Psychological

    • Social

    • Cognitive

    • Physical

    • Environmental

      • These categories overlap and are interconnected

      • Do not provide comprehensive list of resources

      • May be others that should be addressed


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Hood & Carruthers…Practice Guide

  • Psychological resources

    • Capacity for happiness

    • Emotion regulation

    • Self-awareness/self-acceptance/self-congruence

    • Autonomy/self-determination/goal directedness

    • Competence

    • Optimism/hope/positive illusions

    • Sense of meaning


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Hood & Carruthers…Practice Guide

  • Social resources (within individual)

    • Communication skills

    • Interpersonal skills

    • Reciprocal relationship skills

    • Social confidence


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Hood & Carruthers…Practice Guide

  • Cognitive resources

    • Ability to attend

    • Concentration

    • Following directions

    • Problem solving

    • Memory

    • Goal setting


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Physical resources

Physical health

Physical fitness

Mobility

Energy

Environmental resources (outside individual)

Social connectedness & social networks

Community engagement/

empowerment

Hood & Carruthers…Practice Guide


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Hood & Carruthers…Practice Guide

  • Leisure Experience

    • Savoring leisure

    • Authentic leisure

    • Leisure gratifications

    • Mindful leisure

    • Virtuous leisure (volunteering)

      • C/b leisure education interventions


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Hood & Carruthers…Practice Guide

  • Must focus on goals of clients

  • What the client wants guides the process/interventions

  • Mobilizing the clients strengths & resources towards their goals results in social agency and empowerment