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Kidney Day : Introduction . The Kidney’s Functions. Functions of Kidneys: 1. Produce Urine (as a function of ridding body of Nitrogenous waste and other wastes. 2. Regulate water balance 3. Regulate acid-base of body fluids 4. Calcium Homeostatis ( Calcitriol )

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Kidney day introduction l.jpg

Kidney Day : Introduction

The Kidney’s Functions


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  • Functions of Kidneys:

  • 1. Produce Urine (as a function of ridding body of Nitrogenous waste and other wastes.

  • 2. Regulate water balance

  • 3. Regulate acid-base of body fluids

  • 4. Calcium Homeostatis ( Calcitriol)

  • 5. In times of starvation ( Gluconeogenesis)

  • 6. Secretes Erythropoieten

  • 7. Secretes Renin ( Controls Blood pressure)

  • 8. Detoxify free radicals with use of peroxisomes.


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Formation of Urine

Figure 15.5


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Summary of Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion


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Kidney Function: Regulation of Body Fluids, their volume and osmolarity; How is this accomplished? THE COUNTERCURRENT MECHANISM


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The Countercurrent Mechanism osmolarity; How is this accomplished?

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Unit 1 - Objective 7


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  • Glomerulus osmolarity; How is this accomplished?

    • the Glomerulus is the site of filtration

    • the filtration mechanism is sieve-like and consists of fenestrated glomerularcapillaries, podocytes and a basementmembrane that allows free passage of water and solutes smaller than plasma proteins

Site of Filtration

Unit 1 - Objective 4


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Efferent Arteriole osmolarity; How is this accomplished?

Afferent Arteriole

Bowman’s Capsule

Glomerulus

Location of the Glomerulus

Proximal Convoluted Tubule


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Podocyte osmolarity; How is this accomplished? with Basement Membrane

Glomerulus

Bowman’s Capsule

Glomerular Filtration Mechanism

Fenestrated Capillary


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Podocytes- osmolarity; How is this accomplished? (or visceral epithelial cells) are cells of the visceral epithelium in the kidneys and form a crucial component of the glomerular filtration barrier contributing size selectivity and maintaining a massive filtration surface.

Look for these in the kidney section slide ; focus on glomerulus.

What are PODOCYTES?


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  • Used in maintaining blood pressure continued: osmolarity; How is this accomplished?

    • the macula densa cells monitor the salt content of the blood

    • if the blood salt content gets too high, the macula densa cells begin to inhibit the granular cells and suppress renin release

The Juxtaglomerular (JG) Apparatus

Unit 1 - Objective 6


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  • Description osmolarity; How is this accomplished?

    • the juxtaglomerular apparatus consists of specialized macula densa cells that develop in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and specialized granular juxtaglomerular (JG) cells that develop mainly in the afferent arteriole. See following diagram.

The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

Unit 1 - Objective 6


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Bowman’s Capsule osmolarity; How is this accomplished?

Efferent Arteriole

The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus (JG)

DCT

PCT

MaculaDensa Cells

GranularJuxtaglomerular (JG) Cells

Afferent Arteriole


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- osmolarity; How is this accomplished? vasomotion

- monitor salinity

Juxtaglomerular Apparatus


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Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone osmolarity; How is this accomplished?


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  • Used in maintaining blood pressure continued: osmolarity; How is this accomplished?

    • Angiotensin II also stimulates the release of aldosterone hormone from the adrenal cortex

    • aldosterone stimulates the DCT to reabsorb salt (NaCl). Continued on next slide.

The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

Unit 1 - Objective 6


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  • Used in maintaining blood pressure continued: osmolarity; How is this accomplished?

    • salt reabsorption attracts water to the blood by osmosis and raises blood volume, as well as, contributing to the increase in blood pressure. Continued on next slide.

The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

Unit 1 - Objective 6


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The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

Unit 1 - Objective 6


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Effects of Angiotensin II osmolarity; How is this accomplished?


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  • Water intake must equal water output osmolarity; How is this accomplished?

  • Sources for water intake

    • Ingested foods and fluids

    • Water produced from metabolic processes

  • Sources for water output

    • Vaporization out of the lungs

    • Lost in perspiration

    • Leaves the body in the feces

    • Urine production

Maintaining Water Balance


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Maintaining Water Balance


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  • Regulation is primarily by hormones osmolarity; How is this accomplished?

    • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) prevents excessive water loss in urine

    • Aldosterone regulates sodium ion content of extracellular fluid

      • Triggered by the rennin-angiotensin mechanism

  • Cells in the kidneys and hypothalamus are active monitors

Regulation of Water and Electrolyte Reabsorption


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Maintaining Water and Electrolyte Balance osmolarity; How is this accomplished?

Figure 15.10


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Maintaining Acid-Base Balance in Blood


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Maintaining Acid-Base Balance in Blood


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Blood Buffers


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