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Introduction to 3D Graphics Hardware Jaeho Kim Virtual Reality Laboratory KAIST Rendering Pipeline Rendering Pipeline Graphics are in the Chips New developments Feature sizes and pipelines Transformation and lighting Per-pixel effects High-definition TV Graphics are in the Chips

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Introduction to 3d graphics hardware l.jpg

Introduction to 3D Graphics Hardware

Jaeho Kim

Virtual Reality Laboratory

KAIST


Rendering pipeline l.jpg

Rendering Pipeline


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Rendering Pipeline


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Graphics are in the Chips

  • New developments

    • Feature sizes and pipelines

    • Transformation and lighting

    • Per-pixel effects

    • High-definition TV


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Graphics are in the Chips


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3D Graphics Chips

  • Nvidia – GPU(QuadEngine), nfiniteFX Engine

    • GeForce256, GeForce2 GTS, GeForce3, GeForce4 Ti

    • GeForce Fx

  • ATI – Charisma Engine

    • Radeon 7000, Radeon 9000, Radeon 9700, Radeon 9800

  • Sony – Emotion Engine, Graphics Synthesizer

    • Playstation2


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3D Graphics Card: ATI Radeon


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NVIDIA Graphics Cards


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NVIDIA GeForce256

  • Key features

    • Graphics Processing Unit(GPU)

      • Transform Engine

      • Lighting Engine

      • Setup Engine

      • Rendering Engine

    • Cube Environment Mapping

  • DEMO [Boxster][Bubble]


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NVIDIA GeForce2 GTS

  • Key features

    • Second Generation Transform & Lighting

    • NVIDIA Shading Rasterizer(NSR)

      • Per-Pixel Lighting

    • High Definition Video Processing(HDVP)

  • DEMO [Shiny]


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NVIDIA GeForce3

  • Key Features

    • nfiniteFX Engine

      • Programmable Vertex Shader

      • Programmable Pixel Shader

    • Lightspeed Memory Architecture

    • High-resolution Antialiasing

    • Support to DirectX8

  • DEMO [Bump][Chameleon]


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Vertex Shader/Pixel Shader


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Vertex Shader

  • Instructions

    • mov : move

    • mul : product

    • add

    • mad : multiply

    • rsq : reciprocal square root

    • dp3 : dot product

    • dp4 : dot product

    • dst : calculate distance vector

    • lit : calculates lighting coefficients


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Pixel Shader

  • Instructions

    • tex : fetch a filtered texel color

    • texbem : bump environment map

    • texbeml : bump environment map with luminance

    • texcoord : turn the texture coordinate into a color

    • texm3x3spec : compute non-local viewer specular reflection about normal from normal map

    • texm3x3vspec : compute local viewer specular reflection about normal from normal map

    • texm3x3mat : rotate vector through 3x3 matrix, then sample a cubemap or 3D texture


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Vertex Shader


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What the Vertex Shader Can Do

  • Complex Character Animation

  • Environmental Effects

  • Procedural Deformation


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What the Vertex Shader Can Do

  • Key Frame Interpolation

  • Motion Blur

  • Lens Effect

  • Custom lighting Effects

  • Etc


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What the Pixel Shader Can Do

  • Very realistic Shadow Mapping

  • Blinn Bump Mapping = True Reflective Bump Mapping


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What the Pixel Shader Can Do

  • Isotropic BRDF(Bi-Directional Reflective Distribution Function) Based Lighting

  • Cartoon Rendering

  • Etc


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NVIDIA GeForce4 Ti

  • Key features

    • nfiniteFX II engine

    • AGP 8x

    • Accuview antialiasing

    • nView display technology

  • DEMO [Grace]


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NVIDIA GeForce Fx

  • Key features

    • CineFX 2.0 Engine

      • Advance pixel and vertex shader processing

    • Intellisample HCT

      • Increasing compression efficiency for compressing color, texture, and z-data

    • UltraShadow Technology

      • Complex, realistic shadow effects

  • DEMO [Ogre][Fairy]


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ATI Radeon

  • ATI Radeon series

    • Charisma Engine

    • Pixel Tapestry architecture

    • SMARTSHADER

    • TRUFORM

  • DEMO: [Debevec][Music]


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References

  • NVIDIA official site : www.nvidia.com

  • NVIDIA developer site : www.nvidia.com/developer

  • ATI official site : www.ati.com

  • ATI developer site : www.ati.com/developer

  • Game Developers Conference (GDC) : www.gdconf.com

  • Search engine : www.google.com

  • Hardware review sites, eg. Tom’s hardware guide


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