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Chapter 11 and Data Access Classes Interfaces Inputs and outputs are defined early System Interfaces User Interfaces Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process 2 Understanding the User Interface To the end user, the user interface is the system itself

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Interfaces l.jpg
Interfaces

Inputs and outputs are defined early

System Interfaces

User Interfaces

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

2


Understanding the user interface l.jpg
Understanding the User Interface

To the end user, the user interface is the system itself

Physical devices, parts, or documents

Perceptual aspects including seeing, hearing, and touching

Conceptual details about how to use the system

Called the user’s model

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

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Figure 11-1

Physical, perceptual, and conceptual aspects of the user interface

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

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Human Computer Interaction

Human-Factors Engineering

User centered design

Focus early on users and work

Evaluate designs to ensure usability

Iterative development


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Figure 11-2

The fields contributing to the study of HCI

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

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Metaphors for Human-Computer Interaction

Direct

Desktop

Document

Dialog

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

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Figure 11-3

The desktop metaphor based on direct manipulation,

shown on a display screen

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

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Figure 11-4

The document metaphor shown as

hypermedia in a Web browser

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

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Figure 11-5

The dialog metaphor expresses the concept that

the user and computer interact by sending messages

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

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Figure 11-6

The user’s language and the computer’s language used to implement an e-mail application based on the natural dialog between manager and assistant

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

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Guidelines for Designing User Interfaces

Interface design guidelines must be followed for the interface of any system

Interface design standards

Two key principles

Visibility

Affordance

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

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Figure 11-7

The eight golden rules for designing interactive interfaces

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

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Dialogs and Storyboards

Several options for documenting dialogs

List the key steps for each dialog with descriptions of what the user and computer do at each step

Write out a human and computer conversation

Use storyboarding to show a sequence of sketches of a display screen during a dialog

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

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Figure 11-9

Storyboard for the DownTown Videos rent videos dialog

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

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Dialog Documentation with UML Diagrams

Use case narratives show a list of steps followed as a user and computer interact

SSDs describe sequential actor-computer messages

Class diagrams add user-interface classes for forms

Detailed sequence diagram show users interacting with specific objects in forms

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

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Figure 11-10

A sequence diagram for the RMO Look up item availability dialog with the ProductQueryForm added

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

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Figure 11-11

A class diagram showing interface classes making up the ProductQueryForm

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

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Figure 11-13

The RMO Product Detail form used to look up information about a product, select size and color, and then add the product to an order

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

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Figure 11-14

Examples of data-entry controls on an input form

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

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Data Access Classes

Data access classes implement the bridge between data stored in program objects and in a relational database

Data access class methods encapsulate the logic needed to copy values from the problem domain objects to the database, and vice versa

The logic is a combination of program code and embedded SQL commands

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

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Figure 10-22

Interaction among a problem domain class, a data access class, and the DBMS

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process

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