Harmonic and distributed generation interaction issues in the u s navy all electric ship program
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Harmonic and Distributed Generation Interaction Issues in the U.S. Navy All-Electric Ship Program Center for Advanced Power Systems Florida State University Dr. Thomas Baldwin, P.E. Motivation Drivers

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Harmonic and distributed generation interaction issues in the u s navy all electric ship program l.jpg

Harmonic and Distributed Generation Interaction Issues in theU.S. Navy All-Electric Ship Program

Center for Advanced Power Systems Florida State University

Dr. Thomas Baldwin, P.E.

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


Motivation drivers l.jpg
Motivation Drivers the

  • Newer Naval ships require significantly larger amount of energy and power (much greater than commercial ships)

    • Pulse weaponry

    • High-tech, high-power military loads

  • The need for higher installed power places demands on:

    • Energy conversion

    • Power delivery system

      Prompting a move to a common energy / power platform

  • Military requirements dictate the need for

    • Low signatures (enemy identification)

    • Non-interference (compatible with military operations)

    • Damage tolerance (recovery and sustainability)

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


System level performance l.jpg
System Level Performance the

  • Electric Ships are more than electric-drive systems

    • Includes power generation, distribution, and controls

    • Other loads:

      • Pulse-power and pulse-energy weaponry

      • Electro-magnetic assistance launch (EMAL)

      • Communication, computer, radar, and sonar

      • Hospitality and service loads

    • Power system design must be reliable and survivable

      • Graceful degradation

      • Operational after attack damage

        • USS Cole - negative experience for the US Navy

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


System philosophy l.jpg
System Philosophy the

  • Currents

    • ac – conventional technology, common machines

    • dc – electronic loads, energy storage, fuel cells

    • hybrid – best of both worlds?

    • Issues of controllability

      • stability

      • harmonics

      • protection

    • Challenges

      • conversion between current forms

      • losses

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


System philosophy5 l.jpg
System Philosophy the

  • Distribution system topologies

    • radial network

      • traditional method for general electrical loads on ships

    • loop-radial network

      • improvement to reliability and handling pulse loads

    • zonal network

      • mesh (open or closed) network divided into controllable zones

      • power electronic devices (PEBBs) couple the zones together

        • controlled power flows, frequency/voltage conversions, filtering

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


Electric ship system concept l.jpg

Vision the

Electrically

Reconfigurable

Ship

All

Electric

Ship

Integrated

Power

System

  • Technology Insertion

  • Warfighting Capabilities

  • Automation

  • Reduced manning

  • Eliminate auxiliary systems

    • steam

    • hydraulics

    • compressed air

  • Electric Drive

  • Reduce number of Prime Movers

  • Fuel savings

  • Reduced maintenance

Main Power

Distribution

Propulsion

Motor

Prime

Mover

Motor

Drive

Generator

Power

Conversion

Module

Ship

Service

Power

Electric Ship System Concept

Increasing Affordability and Military Capability

Courtesy, ONR

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


Reconfigurable survivable power systems l.jpg

POWER GENERATION MODULE the

FUEL CELL

TODAY

ZONAL ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

POWER ELECTRONIC BUILDING BLOCK

SHIP WIDE ELECTRICAL OUTAGE

COMBAT ELECTRONICS SHUT-DOWN

RECOVERY OF SUPPORT & THEN COMBAT

COMBAT

READINESS

CASUALTY

Ship Service Converter Module (SSCM)

SOURCE

LOAD

TIMELINE

MILLI-SECONDS

SECONDS

MINUTES +

Ship Service Inverter Module (SSIM)

PEBB

DETECT FAULT

~80 MICROSECONDS

2-8 SAMPLES

COMBAT SYSTEMS

STAY ON LINE

Power Port

Power Port

FUTURE

Control

Ship Service Converter Module (SSCM)

SYSTEM

CONTROL

ISOLATION OF DAMAGE/

RECONFIGURE ELECTRIC PLANT

COMBAT

READINESS

CASUALTY

~ 1 MICROSECOND PER SWITCH

TIMELINE

< 100 MILLI-SECONDS

Reconfigurable, Survivable Power Systems

Challenges:

  • Power Density

  • Energy Density

  • System Efficiency

  • Resource Management and Control

Courtesy, ONR

POWER DISTRIBUTION MODULES

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation

6.301.280


Integrated power system approach l.jpg

PDM-1 the

PDM-1

PDM-1

PDM-1

PDM-1

Propulsion

Motor Module

PGM-4

PDM-4

PGM-4

PGM-4

Propulsion

Motor Module

PDM-4

PGM-4

PDM-1

PDM-1

PDM-1

PDM-1

PDM-1

Integrated Power System Approach

Power Generation Module

Power

Distribution

Module

Flexible and Scaleable Power System

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


Technology pebbs l.jpg
Technology: PEBBs the

  • Power Electronic Building Blocks

    • may consist of ac/ac, ac/dc, and dc/dc converters

    • performs multiple power system functions

      • power flow control

      • voltage transformation

      • network protection

    • serves as interface and controller

      • between distribution zones

      • to energy storage systems, fuel cell generation

      • to pulse loads (e.g., EMAL, pulse weapons)

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


Technology propulsion drives l.jpg
Technology: Propulsion Drives the

  • Propulsion Drives

    • Move to propulsion pods

      • pm synchronous machines

      • ac induction motors

      • dc homopolar motor

    • Drive technologies

      • ac / dc-bus / ac converter

      • ac / dc converter

      • dc / dc converter

      • cyclo-converter

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


Harmonic noise l.jpg
Harmonic Noise the

  • Well-known fact that converters and drives inject harmonic signals onto the electrical network

    • supply-side noise can impact sensitive loads and network control and protection

    • load-side noise can impact machine performance, insulation life, and mechanical bearings

  • Cyclo-converters

    • also introduce inter-harmonic signals as a function of the input and output frequencies

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


Typical harmonic levels l.jpg
Typical Harmonic Levels the

Cyclo-converter

at zero speed,

showing classical

harmonics

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


Typical harmonic levels13 l.jpg
Typical Harmonic Levels the

Cyclo-converter

at medium drivespeed, illustrated

interharmonics

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


Harmonic sensitivity l.jpg
Harmonic Sensitivity the

  • Sensitive ship loads

    • radar systems, communication systems

    • computer controls for weapons and navigation

    • technical issues

      • military computer systems have long restart times

      • loss of critical loads are not acceptable to the Navy

  • Currently used harmonic mitigation methods

    • motor-generator sets

    • isolated generation and distribution systems

    • isolating UPS (dc link)

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


Harmonic mitigation l.jpg
Harmonic Mitigation the

  • Typical Navy ship builder’s experience

    • Design conversion of one class of submarines to an all-electric design

      • electric drive reduced propulsion drive system size and weigh – eliminated the mechanical gearbox

      • power system required extensive harmonic filtering

      • consequence: overall vessel design length increased by 10 feet

  • Novel Course of Action

    • Harmonic zones

      • some zones are permitted to operate with high levels of harmonic distortion

      • zones are separated by PEBB units

      • research of zonal approach is in the initial phase

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


Caps harmonic research program l.jpg
CAPS Harmonic Research Program the

  • Challenge: increasing prevalence of solid state switching converters on a closely coupled AC or DC network that may create problems of harmonic distortion, resonance between system components and system stability

  • Objective: characterize harmonic levels in an (isolated) integrated power system, which has yet to be built, and address any potential problems prior to construction

  • Task:

    • investigate the effects of harmonics in ship power components and loads, looking at parametric studies, hypothetical operating situation, and new technologies for power conversion, control and filtering

    • Analyze zonal distribution system with mixed levels of harmonic distortion

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


Caps harmonic research program17 l.jpg
CAPS Harmonic Research Program the

  • System and model verification initiative

    • USCG Healy

      • EMTDC studies

      • on-board harmonic measurements during maneuvers

      • real-time digital simulation of primary propulsion system

    • Parametric studies on zonal distribution system

  • Simulation studies of converters, drives, and PEBBs

    • Time-domain computer simulations

    • Hardware-in-the-loop tests on prototype power-electronic equipment

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


Simulation modeling l.jpg
Simulation & Modeling the

  • Simulation of tightly-coupled power systems with power electronics and weak generation sources

    • In the utility world, power system problems have been approached through simulation and modeling

      • initially with scale analog models

      • in the last 30 years with digital modeling

    • Ship propulsion systems are modeled digitally

      • using techniques developed primarily for mechanical and control system

    • The heavy use of power electronics in ship systems creates a need to understand the system performance

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


Uscg healy studies l.jpg
USCG Healy Studies the

Ship power system modeling

  • model development (Aug 2000-June 2001)

    • propulsion load models of ship hydrodynamics

    • propulsion drives, motor, and control system

    • generation control and dynamics

  • model verification (comparison with CG results)(Apr 2001-Nov 2001)

    • performance design criteria

    • ship design-phase simulations

    • recorded data from ship data acquisition system

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


Uscg healy program l.jpg
USCG Healy Program the

Ship’s

one-line

diagram

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


Real time modeling l.jpg
Real Time Modeling the

  • Utility industry uses real time digital simulation for hardware-in-loop testing of control systems and protective devices

  • CAPS is acquiring a commercial real time simulation system sufficient to model a mid-sized ship system

  • R-T simulator will be evaluated for performance with closely-coupled systems by studying the USCG Healy system

  • Structure a research program focused on advancing the real time simulation capability

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


Power test bed l.jpg
Power Test Bed the

  • CAPS is combining real-time simulation with power component testing in a hardware-in-the-loop facility to create a unique testing environment that will:

    • provide capability to control source and load characteristics for hardware under test to emulate an actual power system condition

    • provide dynamic response to equipment under test

    • provide wide range of voltages & frequencies

    • provide the capability to create system configurations that model new designs and applications

    • provide easy reconfiguration capability for diverse equipment under test

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


Caps test facility l.jpg

G the

G

=

=

=

~

~

~

CAPS Test Facility

115 kV Transmission

Lines

Gas Turbine Generators

(2) 2.5 MW

To Perdom Generation Plant

To Hopkins Generation Plant

(2) 30/40/50 MVA Transformers

Levi Steet Substation

12.47 kV Main Experimental Bus

5 MVA Transformer 12.47kV / 750 / 1500

3.5 MVA Transformer 12.47kV / 4160

Utility System

CAPS System

HTS

Substation

Feeders to NHMFL

Feeders to Innovation Park

5 MW Converter

4-Q Operation

FCL

DC Experimental Bus

Adjustable: 500 to 2000 V

5 MVA Variable Voltage / Frequency Inverter

2 MW Bi-Directional Chopper

4160 V AC Experimental Bus

BWX 100-MJ SMES Magnet Energy Storage

S

2.5 MVA Transformer 4160 / 450 V

C

C

MCC

Experimental Loads

D

D

M

(2) 2.5 MW Dynamometers

Test Machine and Controls

5000 hp Motor Test Cell

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


Summary and conclusion l.jpg
Summary and Conclusion the

  • Only an integrated power system makes economic sense for warships

    • Large-scale use of power electronic devices in close-coupled systems cause harmonic problems at levels rarely encountered in utility or industrial environments

    • All-electric ships need novel concepts for its integrated power system

    • Building of knowledge base for modeling and simulation is needed

    • Real-time simulation with power system components as hardware-in-the-loop will offer unique opportunity to study harmonic issues

Power Systems Conference 2002

Impact of Distributed Generation


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