The high cost of free parking
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THE HIGH COST OF FREE PARKING Donald Shoup All transportation systems have three basic elements: Vehicles Rights of way Terminal capacity Trains Train tracks Train stations Airplanes Sky Airports Ships Oceans Seaports Cars Roads Parking spaces

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All transportation systems have three basic elements l.jpg
All transportation systems have three basic elements:

VehiclesRights of wayTerminal capacity

Trains Train tracks Train stations

Airplanes Sky Airports

Ships Oceans Seaports

Cars Roads Parking spaces


Automobile travel is unusual in two ways l.jpg
Automobile travel is unusual in two ways:

  • It requires enormous terminal capacity (several parking spaces per car).

  • The cost of parking has been shifted out of the transportation sector and into the prices for everything else. Drivers park free for 99 percent of automobile trips in the US.


Who pays for free parking l.jpg

Who pays for free parking?

Everyone but the motorist.


In 2002 the total subsidy for off street parking was between 135 billion and 386 billion l.jpg

In 2002, the total subsidy for off-street parking was between $135 billion and $386 billion.

In 2002, the federal government spent $231 billion for Medicare, and $349 billion for national defense.


Results of changing the price of off street parking l.jpg

Results of changing the price of off-street parking between $135 billion and $386 billion.


Employer paid parking l.jpg
Employer-Paid Parking between $135 billion and $386 billion.

  • 95% of all automobile commuters park free at work

  • 91% of all commuters drive to work

  • 91% of commuters’ cars have one occupant

  • Most commuters park free regardless of

    • age

    • gender

    • income

    • education

    • residence

  • 85 million free parking spaces at work in 1994

  • Parking subsidy for commuters was $36 billion a year


Employer paid parking a matching grant l.jpg
Employer-Paid Parking: between $135 billion and $386 billion.A Matching Grant

  • Employers pay for parking at work if the employee is willing to pay for driving to work

  • Commuters who do not drive to work do not get a subsidy

  • Employer-paid parking encourages solo driving


Slide12 l.jpg

Free parking increases solo driving by 60% between $135 billion and $386 billion.


Results l.jpg
Results between $135 billion and $386 billion.

  • Parking cash out reduced the number of cars driven to work by 11%

  • After parking cash out, employees

    • traveled 652 fewer vehicle miles per year

    • consumed fewer 26 gallons of fuel per year


Results of increasing the price of curb parking l.jpg
Results of increasing the price of curb parking between $135 billion and $386 billion.


Slide23 l.jpg

Park-and-visit times before and after changing between $135 billion and $386 billion.

the price of curb parking in London


Slide24 l.jpg

Park-and-visit times before and after between $135 billion and $386 billion.

parking prices were quadrupled

Re


Slide25 l.jpg

The effects of parking prices on Grosvenor Square in London between $135 billion and $386 billion.

No meters

Meters

Prices quadrupled


Conclusion l.jpg
Conclusion between $135 billion and $386 billion.

  • Parking is heavily subsidized. The annual subsidy for off-street parking may be about the size of the budget for national defense.

  • Parking prices have a profound effect on travel choices. Parking subsidies substantially increase vehicle travel.


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